Boiler plant operator salary


2021.06.11 12:31 serey23 StationaryEngineers

A stationary engineer is an operator of boilers, steam turbines, auxiliary equipment (ie. air compressors/pumps) or refrigeration machinery. He or she works in factories, offices, hospitals, warehouses or any other locations requiring the use that equipment. A stationary engineer has various titles. For example, boiler operator, power plant operator and/or watch engineer. In addition, they have various designations (first class, second class and third class). Anyone who is in the field regardles

2023.06.09 09:36 SorbetSuccessful731 Crop Management Software Market Unidentified Segments – The Biggest Opportunity Of 2023

A Latest intelligence report published by AMA Research with title "Global Crop Management Software Market Outlook to 2027. This detailed report on Crop Management Software Market provides a detailed overview of key factors in the Global Crop Management Software Market and factors such as driver, restraint, past and current trends, regulatory scenarios and technology development.
Crop management software refers to an application that allows farmers to organize all of their crop information in a centralized location. The crop management software helps the farmers to coordinate every aspect of farm management to improve productivity and farm operations. With the help of this software, farmer can keep tabs on the condition of their crops, farm activities, workers and farm equipment. It also helps farmers to organize the information about harvesting, shipping, planting seasons, packaging, and spray records. Crop management software can be used to see the cost of production and important field activities.
Major Players in this Report Include are:
Dragonfly IT (Canada)
AgWorks L.L.C. (United States)
Agrinavia (Denmark)
Agvance (United States)
Dairy One (United States)
FarmFlo (Ireland)
Cropio (United States)
Conservis (United States)
Topcon Corporation (Japan)
GEA Group (Germany)
Tetra Laval group (DeLaval) (Switzerland)
Agrivi (United Kingdom)
Market Drivers: Increasing Focus towards Farm Efficiency Globally
Growing Demand for Traceability in the Food Supply
Market Trend: Rising Demand for Fleet Navigation and Fish Tracking Services
Penetration of Cloud in Farm Data
Opportunities: Increasing Use of Mobile by Farmers Creates an Opportunity for the Crop Management Software
The Global Crop Management Software Market segments and Market Data Break Down by Application (Crop Tracking & Management, Weather Monitoring, Analytics and Report, Labor & Resource Tracking, Others), Components (Software, Service), Deployment Mode (Mobile Based, Cloud-Based), Agriculture Type (Precision Farming, Livestock Monitoring, Fish Farming, Smart Greenhouse Farming, Others), Service Type (System Integrators, Assisted Professional Service, Connectivity Service, Maintenance, Upgradation, Others)
Geographically World Crop Management Software markets can be classified as North America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC), Middle East and Africa and Latin America. North America has gained a leading position in the global market and is expected to remain in place for years to come. The growing demand for Global Crop Management Software markets will drive growth in the North American market over the next few years.
Presented By
AMA Research & Media LLP
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2023.06.09 09:22 autotldr Water level in Kherson Oblast finally starting to subside: 20 cm overnight – Head of Oblast Military Administration

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 72%. (I'm a bot)
The level of flooding in the Kherson Oblast has finally begun to decrease - overnight, the water dropped by about 20 cm, and evacuations of people and animals continue.
"Quote from Prokudin:"As for the current situation: on average, the water level on the right bank is 5.38 m, and in Kherson, it is 5.35 m. We can already see that the water has dropped by 20 cm overnight.
As of this morning, 3,624 homes in 32 settlements in the Kherson Oblast have been flooded.
Details: Kherson Oblast Administration also called on all volunteers with boats who planned to join the rescue operation to refrain from visiting Kherson for the time being.
"We are not afraid, we have sailed home." Ukrainska Pravda on high water and evacuation in Kherson.
At least 150 tonnes of machine oil has spilled into the Dnipro River due to the destruction of the Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Plant, there are also problems with drinking water supply in the towns of Kryvyi Rih, Marhanets and Nikopol.
Summary Source FAQ Feedback Top keywords: Plant#1 Kherson#2 water#3 flood#4 Power#5
Post found in /worldnews.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
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2023.06.09 09:08 AlfredoThayerMahan Overlooked Capabilities and Limitations of Kansen

Overlooked Capabilities and Limitations of Kansen
Despite the game’s inherent silliness, I think it’s worth considering some realistic advantages and disadvantages Kansen would provide.
I want to specifically focus on things I think are overlooked. More obvious things like that Kansen are small targets are fairly self-explanatory.


To me this is their single greatest advantage. A ship may require anywhere from a few dozen crew, such as on a U-boat, to thousands on Battleships and Carriers. A Kansen requires only one person, reducing the considerable operating expense and possible bottleneck on trained personnel associated.
Something Something, Decisive Battle:
To put it simply, a Kansen is more portable than a comparable warship. Depending on interpretation one may be able to transport them by air with little difficulty. For some reason I do not think this is currently SOP in the USN. This Strategic mobility allows for one to very quickly concentrate forces to contest an enemy’s sea control or generally respond to situations in a timely manner, amplifying certain elements of power-projection.
Data Fusion:
If it looks like a duck, quacks like a duck, smells like a duck, tastes like a duck, and you conclude it is, in fact, a duck, you are utilizing data fusion. A Kansen could utilize similar principles with radar, optics, and other sources. A real WWII warship could do this, the key being it takes time. A Kansen could do this far quicker, employing a shorter cycle OODA loop when responding to threats as they have a direct connection between the observation, decision, and action portions of the ship.

A diagram of the OODA loop.

Signature reduction:
Most low frequency (L band and lower in IEEE) will generally struggle to pick out a Kansen from the clutter of even small waves due to their small size. This isn’t without limitations and a high-frequency radar, say in the X-band could be expected to pick a Kansen out to a reasonable range (This is why most surface-search radars are high frequency), provided you have a competent operator and suitably advanced filtering system.


These elements here aren’t to say Kansen are worse than their comparative ships, they are better, but there are some striking limitations that they may face that are consistently overlooked by people.
They’re short, even FDG:
Unless the fluoridation (PBF/POE) has been reprogramming my mind, I’m fairly certain we live on a roughly spherical planet. Regardless of potential Communist infiltration and subversion (I mean seriously, have you ever seen a Commie drink water?), this has the annoying effect of limiting line of sight to a distance largely dependent on the height of the sensor, be it the Mk1 Eyeball or an AN/SPY-6 Phased Array. Now radars can see a bit past this visual horizon due to refraction and some other complicated physics like Ground Wave Propagation that I really don’t feel inclined nor qualified to try to explain here. Still, the height of the sensor largely dictates the detection range for low altitude objects like ships or sea-skimming missiles. With a Kansen this range is somewhere between short and “Jack Shit” with a theoretical range for radar visibility of around 17-18 nautical miles for a particularly tall Pagoda mast.
This isn’t to say a surface-search radar on a Kansen would be useless but it would be limited by the horizon and probably, more importantly, by the clutter produced by a Kansen bobbing up and down in waves as tall as them (I will get to this later). Some radars like the SG may not see much, if any, limitation on range against conventional ships because the tall objects stick up above the horizon and they are relatively short range (about 15 nautical miles), but filter settings may reduce this to well below the maximum depending on sea-state. Additionally, higher frequency radars like the SG see little if no refraction though again, this really depends on many variables beyond the scope of this post.

A basic diagram of how curvature effects radar detection.
On a flat calm your average speedboat or RHIB will easily exceed the speed of most naval vessels. However, this changes once you get into rough conditions. With a low displacement Kansen are bound by these same limitations. Their excellent strategic mobility is detracted by, if not poor, limited, tactical mobility.
Where a full-sized ship can cut or just bash their way through waves, a Kansen is liable to catch air and smash into the next wave, killing forward momentum. This makes sustained endurance, as may be the case when trying to catch an enemy, incredibly hard. However, Kansen do seem to be very maneuverable, which does compensate to a great degree, but this is almost exclusively a defensive advantage and can’t be applied in offense to the same degree as speed.
Generally, Kansen operations in rough weather seem somewhere between pointless and purposefully inflicted misery. It would be slow going, completely miserable, and good luck spotting things when you have a wave over your head half the time and kiss being a stable gun platform goodbye.
A useful chart for sea conditions. keep in mind these are general rules and can vary heavily.
Station Keeping:
Kansen on their own cannot reasonably perform long-endurance missions. Where a ship can post watches 24/7, a Kansen can’t. This isn’t an insurmountable obstacle, indeed assigning a fast transport or light warship to act as a Kansen tender would be very easy, it simply requires consideration.
Steam Sucks:
Most of the ships in AL use Steam Turbines and boilers for power. This is not great.
In case you didn’t know, with steam turbines it takes hours, sometimes even days before the systems can reach full power or they risk damaging the pipes. Time to build up steam pressure could easily invalidate the advantages in portability that a Kansen has
This gets to the second element of this. Kansen, even if they can summon their rigging on land, would face a power issue. Steam systems require condensers. These use relatively cold sea water to turn the steam back into liquid so it can be used again. Without this process the steam turbine sees back pressure build up and will generally cease to function.

A diagram of a Steam Condenser.
To Illustrate how much of a problem this is, let's look at USS New Jersey. Generally ship’s power used an octet of smaller steam turbines that drew from the steam of her main power plant. These generated around 1.25 Megawatts of Ship’s Power each, depending on surrounding environmental temperature. She also had a pair of diesel generators. These generated a total of 500 kilowatts. That’s not good.
Let's look at the power requirements for one of her turrets. Training was handled by a 300 horsepower (220 kW) motor, each gun had a 60 hp (45 kW) motor for elevation, three sets of rammers of 60 hp (45 kW), three shell elevators of 75 hp (56 kW), three powder hoists (100 hp/ 75 kW), and two motors for her shell rings with a power of 40 hp (30 kW) a piece. This is a total of around 940 kilowatts per turret, almost double her non-steam ship’s power. You can also kiss using radars on land goodbye because of these limitations.
Paralysis by Analysis:
To what degree a Kansen can process and respond to multiple threats is unknown. Still, I think it is fair to assume that tunnel vision that may not occur on a conventional ship, is far more likely to happen to a Kansen. There is a reason why one-man tanks are not a thing and the comparison to tank warfare is apt because in many ways Kansen perform more like tanks than traditional warships. Even if one is incredibly perceptive, individuals are generally inclined to distractions, and this could have “suboptimal” consequences.
Are there any advantages/disadvantages you could see Kansen having in an operational setting?
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2023.06.09 08:33 Seema-Jain Popular Tractor Implements Brands in India:

In modern agriculture, tractor implements are essential because they let farmers complete a variety of farming tasks quickly and effectively. There are various well-known brands that provide top-notch tractor implements in India. These companies offer a wide selection of attachments and accessories made to meet the various requirements of Indian farmers. We shall examine some of the well-known tractors implements brands in India in this post, including Mahindra Tractor Implements, Agristar Implements, Tafe Implements, John Deere Implements, and Shaktiman Implements.
1. Shaktiman Implements:
A well-known company called Shaktiman Implements provides a broad selection of agricultural attachments. Shaktiman Implements has built a solid name among Indian farmers by putting a strong focus on quality and innovation. They offer cultivators, harrows, seeders, ploughs, rotavators, and other products. Shaktiman Tools have been recognised for their dependability, effectiveness, and user-friendly design. Shaktiman Implements are trusted by farmers to efficiently complete operations like tilling, planting, plough, and crop management.
2. Tafe Implements:
One of the top tractor producers in India, Tafe, also provides a selection of premium tractor implements. Tafe Implements offer the best performance and compatibility since they are made to work effortlessly with Tafe tractors. The company sells a wide range of tools, such as cultivators, rotary tillers, loaders, backhoes, and more. Tafe Implements are known for their durable design, fine engineering, and solid construction. Farmers all throughout the country rely on them for their adaptability and durability in a range of farming applications.
3. John Deere Implements:
In India, a variety of tractor implements are also available from John Deere, a well-known name in the agricultural machinery industry. Implements made by John Deere are known for their exceptional performance, advanced features, and modern technology. The company offers a wide variety of attachments, such as loaders, seeders, sprayers, plows, and harrows. Indian farmers are able to boost their productivity and efficiency on the farm by using John Deere Implements, which were manufactured specifically to match their demands.
4. Mahindra Tractor Implements:
India's leading tractor manufacturer, Mahindra, has increased the variety of tractor implements available through its product line. Mahindra Tractor Implements have a reputation for being reliable, powerful, and efficient. The company offers a wide range of accessories, such as loaders, backhoes, post-hole diggers, cultivators, and more. In order to ensure optimal compatibility and effective operation, Mahindra Tractor Implements are designed to work effortlessly with Mahindra tractors. Farmers rely on Mahindra Implements to do multiple agricultural jobs quickly and accurately.
5. Agristar Implements:
Agristar is an established company that produces excellent tractor implements. Agristar Implements are known for their durable build, efficient design, and reasonable price. Ploughs, harrows, cultivators, seed drills, and other attachments are just a few of the many options available under this brand. In addition, to meet the various needs of Indian farmers, Agristar Implements is built to withstand the challenges of difficult farming conditions. Agristar Implements is a well-liked option among farmers looking for high-quality implements within their price range because of their dependable performance and cheap pricing.
Tractor implements are indispensable tools that contribute significantly to enhancing agricultural productivity in India. The popularity of various tractor implements brands is a testament to their commitment to quality, innovation, and meeting the diverse needs of Indian farmers. Shaktiman Implements, Tafe Implements, John Deere Implements, Mahindra Tractor Implements, and Agristar Implements are renowned brands trusted by farmers across the country. With their wide range of attachments and accessories, these brands enable farmers to efficiently perform tasks such as tilling, seeding, plowing, and more. Whether it's the durability of Shaktiman Implements, compatibility of Tafe Implements, advanced technology of John Deere Implements, reliability of Mahindra Tractor Implements, or affordability of Agristar Implements, these brands continue to play a vital role in driving agricultural progress in India.
For more additional information about Rotavator, Electric Tractor, and Harvester visit
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2023.06.09 08:04 KayaTax1 Remote Bookkeeping Services: Benefiting Small Businesses

In today's digital age, small businesses have embraced the convenience and efficiency of remote Orange County bookkeeping services. With technological advancements and the growing popularity of cloud-based solutions, entrepreneurs across the United States are reaping significant benefits from outsourcing their bookkeeping tasks. This article explores how remote bookkeeping services have revolutionized the way small businesses manage their finances and achieve sustainable growth.
Streamlined Operations and Cost Savings:
Remote bookkeeping services have streamlined operations for small businesses, allowing them to focus on their core competencies while leaving financial management to appropriate professionals. By outsourcing bookkeeping tasks, entrepreneurs can free up valuable time and resources that can be redirected towards driving innovation and business growth. The cost savings associated with remote bookkeeping services are noteworthy as well. Small businesses can avoid the expenses of hiring in-house bookkeepers, such as salaries, benefits, and training costs. With remote services, businesses pay only for the services they need, on a customized and flexible basis.
Accuracy and Financial Expertise:
Accuracy is paramount in bookkeeping, as even the smallest errors can have significant consequences for a business's financial health. Remote bookkeeping services employ skilled professionals who possess the necessary expertise and experience to handle financial data accurately. These professionals stay updated on the latest accounting practices and regulations, ensuring that financial records are maintained in compliance with industry standards. Moreover, remote bookkeeping services often utilize advanced software and technologies that enhance accuracy and automate routine tasks, minimizing the risk of human error.
Data Security and Accessibility:
The security of financial data is a top priority for small businesses. Remote bookkeeping services employ robust security measures to protect sensitive financial information. Cloud-based systems with strong encryption protocols and multi-factor authentication ensure that data remains secure from unauthorized access. Additionally, remote bookkeeping services often provide secure portals where business owners can access their financial data in real time, enabling them to make informed decisions promptly. This level of accessibility empowers entrepreneurs to monitor their financial health, track key performance indicators, and respond to changing market conditions effectively.
Scalability and Business Insights:
As small businesses grow, their bookkeeping needs evolve. Remote bookkeeping services offer scalability, allowing businesses to easily adjust the level of service required to match their growth trajectory. Whether it's handling increased transaction volumes, expanding into new markets, or adapting to regulatory changes, remote bookkeeping services can accommodate these evolving needs. Moreover, remote bookkeeping services generate valuable business insights through accurate and up-to-date financial reporting. These insights provide small business owners with a comprehensive view of their financial performance, enabling informed decision-making and strategic planning.
Remote Orange County bookkeeping services have emerged as a game-changer for small businesses in the United States. With streamlined operations, cost savings, accuracy, data security, accessibility, scalability, and valuable business insights, entrepreneurs can focus on driving growth and achieving their long-term goals. Embracing remote bookkeeping services has become a key strategy for small businesses to thrive in today's competitive landscape.
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2023.06.09 07:42 unikartgurgaon The Future of Business Education: Pursue an Online MBA

The Future of Business Education: Pursue an Online MBA
Online MBA
Online MBA is a popular choice among individuals seeking advanced business education while balancing their professional and personal commitments. Here's some information on various aspects of an Online MBA:
Online MBA Program:
An Online MBA program is a flexible and convenient option that allows students to pursue their Master of Business Administration degree remotely. It offers similar curriculum and coursework as traditional on-campus MBA programs, but with the added advantage of remote accessibility.
Online MBA Course:
Online MBA courses cover a wide range of subjects related to business management, leadership, finance, marketing, operations, and more. These courses are designed to equip students with the necessary knowledge and skills to excel in various business roles.
Online MBA Eligibility:
Eligibility criteria for Online MBA programs vary among universities and institutions. Generally, applicants are required to hold a bachelor's degree from a recognized institution and demonstrate relevant work experience. Some programs may also require standardized test scores such as the GMAT or GRE.
Online MBA Fees Structure:
The fees structure for an Online MBA program depends on the institution offering the program, its reputation, and other factors. Tuition fees for Online MBA programs can vary significantly, and it's advisable to research and compare different options to find a program that suits your budget and offers value for money.
Online MBA Placements:
Online MBA programs often provide placement assistance to their students. The placement support can include career counseling, networking opportunities, job fairs, and access to a vast alumni network. The actual placement outcomes may vary depending on factors such as individual capabilities, industry trends, and the reputation of the program.
Online MBA Entrance Exams:
Some universities and institutions offering Online MBA programs require applicants to take specific entrance exams, such as the GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test) or the GRE (Graduate Record Examinations). These exams assess the applicant's aptitude and readiness for graduate-level business education.
Online MBA Syllabus:
The syllabus of an Online MBA program typically covers a broad range of subjects, including core business disciplines like finance, marketing, operations, human resources, and strategic management. Additionally, specialized elective courses may be available in areas such as entrepreneurship, international business, data analytics, or healthcare management.
Online MBA Jobs and Salary:
Completing an Online MBA can enhance career prospects and open up opportunities for higher-level managerial roles across industries. The specific job opportunities and salary expectations vary depending on factors such as work experience, industry, job market conditions, and individual performance. Generally, MBA graduates have the potential to earn higher salaries compared to those with just a bachelor's degree.
Online MBA Degree:
Upon successfully completing an Online MBA program, students are awarded a Master of Business Administration degree. This degree holds the same value and recognition as an on-campus MBA degree and can contribute significantly to one's professional growth and advancement.
Online MBA Admission Process:
The admission process for Online MBA programs typically involves submitting an application form, academic transcripts, letters of recommendation, a statement of purpose, and, in some cases, standardized test scores. Each institution may have specific requirements, so it's important to check the admission guidelines and deadlines of the respective program.
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2023.06.09 07:29 patelcollege Mastering Systems Engineering: Steps to a Successful Career

If engineering were an orchestra, systems engineers would be the conductors, keeping a strong grip on parts and the overall performance to ensure a successful performance. Systems engineers manage all aspects of a technological project or system, from operations, testing, and cost through manufacture, evaluation, and disposal, to ensure it is as efficient as feasible.
People, machinery, software, regulations, and other elements may be included as system components. In contrast to industrial engineers, who often focus on optimising production and supply chain operations, systems engineers typically concentrate on complicated technical processes. Nonetheless, some institutions and organisations group systems and industrial engineers together.
Systems engineering necessitates a thorough understanding of both business and engineering. Because system engineers' abilities are useful in practically every field, most professionals, as well as many degree programmes offered by the best private colleges in Bhopal, have a speciality. A master's degree in systems engineering from the Patel Group of Institutions, for example, allows students to specialise in cybersecurity systems, human systems, software systems, modelling and simulations, or project management. Whatever path they choose, systems engineers are distinguished by their breadth of skills and expertise.
The following are some actions you may take to become a systems engineer:

1. Graduate with a bachelor's degree in engineering.

A bachelor's degree preferably from the best private college in Bhopal is frequently required for entry-level systems engineering roles. A bachelor's degree in systems engineering, industrial engineering, computer engineering, or a similar discipline is an option. Although certain roles may require a master's degree, a bachelor's degree is usually enough to begin a career in this sector.
Admission Requirements for Bachelor Degree Program in System Engineering.
The competitiveness of systems engineering programmes varies for each college, as do the admittance standards. The following are real-world examples of frequent undergraduate system engineer admissions requirements. It should be noted that online systems engineering programmes may have extra prerequisites.
● A high school diploma or its equivalent is required.
● A minimum cumulative high school percentage of 65% (varies).
● Must pass the entrance exam conducted by the College.
● A good score in the Joint Entrance exam is preferred for taking admission to some of the best private colleges in Bhopal and top institutions in India.
Undergraduates in systems engineering who want to advance their job and earnings opportunities are urged to seek master's degrees. It is not unusual for someone to begin the industry with a bachelor's degree in order to obtain some experience before enrolling in a master's degree program.

2. Complete a master's degree.

Many companies prefer to recruit individuals who have a master's degree in systems engineering or a similar subject. A master's degree may be very valuable, especially in managerial positions. You can pursue a master's degree in computer science with an appropriate speciality after finishing a bachelor's degree programme from the best private college in Bhopal.
Admissions Requirements for Master's Programmes in Systems Engineering.
The following admittance requirements are typical in graduate programmes in systems engineering:
● A bachelor's degree from a UGC-accredited institution in engineering, systems engineering, mathematics, statistics, quantitative management, or a related subject.
● A total undergraduate CGPA of 6.0 or better (variable) is required.
● Calculus and statistics courses at the undergraduate level will be an added benefit.
● In some of the best private colleges in Bhopal, you might have to give an entrance test to prove your suitability for the course.

3. Consider an internship.

Candidates with past work experience in the field of systems engineering are preferred by large organisations. Working as an intern might also provide you with a competitive advantage in your job hunt. You can do an internship throughout your academic course or after you finish one. An internship allows you to obtain real-world business experience and understand how businesses function.

4. Acquire certificates

Depending on your sector, you may obtain a variety of certifications to potentially broaden your career prospects and raise your pay. You can look for certificates online or in-person to assist you get started in this area. Renew your certificates or licences if the issuing institution requires them.

5. Think about getting A PhD in Systems Engineering (Three years or more).

Doctorates in systems engineering are less common than bachelor's and master's degrees since they are often needed primarily by professors and researchers. Some professionals pursue them regardless, whether for professional reasons or to increase their salary and career prospects, but this is never assured. Doctoral students must complete some essential courses, but they spend the majority of their time writing and defending their dissertations. Fellowships or assistantships, qualifying tests, or work published in academic publications are all required by several institutions. Many PhD programmes in systems engineering from the best private college in Bhopal accept students with bachelor's degrees who then pursue master's and PhD degrees concurrently.
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2023.06.09 07:22 ricksterick Shell Deer Park Starting Pay

I just got invited for an interview as an experienced operator as Shell Chemical Plant Deer Park TX. I know the refinery sold to Pemex. Does anyone know the chemical plant operator pay?
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2023.06.09 07:15 linkelek1 Ukrajnai háború, péntek reggel

-franciaország átveszi oroszországtól a második legnagyobb fegyverexportőri címet -az ukrán ellentámadás céljai , nem csak katonaiak vannak -ukrán ellentámadással kapcsolatos pletykák gyüjteménye , inormáció nincs, csak pletykák -baskirok is harcolnak oroszország ellen -ukrán napi videós összefoglaló

gát robbantás

-Kakhovka környéke délben -dél Dnipro Hola Prystan környéke -az orosz hadsereg lövi az evakuálást végzőket , pl: kép , és videó , másik videó , , harmadik videó , még videó , az evakuáló pontot is lövik a kreml terroristái -oroszország rakétázta azt az iskolát, ahova az árciz miatt evakuáltak ideiglenes szállása van -az orosz hadsereg akadályozza az evakuálást a megszállt Olevskyben , oroszország terrorista állam -a tározó vízszintje már annyira alacsony, hogy se az atomerőmű, se a környező települések nem kapnak vizet és a helyzet tovább romlik -a gátszakadást belső robbanás okozhatta -orosz katonák fákon várják, hogy levonuljon az ár , napokig fog tartani -a megszállt területeken Olevskyban oroszország nem engedi az evakuálást, emiatt emberek halnak meg -orosz katonák már decemberben aláaknázták a gátet -több száz állatot sikerült evakuálni khersonban

orosz sorozás/mobilizálás

-már néhány orosz sorozott is van a halottak között -az orosz űrprogramban dolgozó tudosókat is a frontra viszik Uránusz zászlóalj -ukrán katonák LNDNR foglyokkal , sok orosz mobilizáltak az LNDNR hadseregéhez vezényeltek

drónok, rakéták

-FPV drón támadás másik drónról nézve -sikeres drón bombázások , van amelyik 3 RPG7-et dobott le


-a helyiek már megszokták a HIMARS-okat

friss térképek

-déli front -Russian Invasion - Day 470 , Summary of the situation, including detailed maps.


-orosz veszteségek , $2.1B in the last 30 days, $88M reported today, 730 troop losses, 7-day troop average: 627, 109 landbased losses, 7-day average: 87 -orosz "2S9 Nona" semmisül meg látványosan -a megszállt Berdyanks az éjjel -orosz 2A36 Giatsint-B 152mm löveg kapott találatot -orosz katona pont a drónról dobott gránátra vetődik -ukrán mesterlövész infratávcsővel -luhanski orosz bázis kapott rakéta, vagy JDAM találatot , orosz tank javító hely kap JDAM találatot -orosz 2S3 Akatsiya kap találatot


RUSSIAN OFFENSIVE CAMPAIGN ASSESSMENT, JUNE 8, 2023 Ukraine has conducted counteroffensive operations with differential outcomes in at least three sectors of the front as part of wider counteroffensive efforts that have been unfolding since Sunday, June 4. Ukrainian forces conducted a limited but still significant attack in western Zaporizhia Oblast on the night of June 7 to 8. Russian forces apparently defended against this attack in a doctrinally sound manner and had reportedly regained their initial positions as of June 8. Russian forces appear to have executed their formal tactical defensive doctrine in response to the Ukrainian attacks southwest of Orikhiv. Ukrainian attacks in western Zaporizhia on June 8 do not represent the full extent of Ukrainian capabilities in the current counteroffensive. It is additionally noteworthy that the Russian Southern Military District Forces deployed in this particular area are likely to be a higher quality force grouping than Russia has elsewhere in theater, and their defensive performance is unlikely to be reflective of defensive capabilities of Russian groupings elsewhere on the front. Russian forces and occupation authorities continue to exacerbate the humanitarian ramifications of the flooding resulting from the Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Plant (KHPP) dam break. Russian forces continued to conduct limited ground attacks on the Kupyansk-Svatove line and around Kreminna. Ukrainian forces made limited gains around Bakhmut, and Russian forces conducted limited ground attacks along the Avdiivka-Donetsk City line. Ukrainian forces continued to conduct limited ground attacks on the administrative border between Donetsk and Zaporizhia oblasts. The Russian MoD continues to posture itself as a firm authority over the defense industrial base (DIB) through emphasizing its ability to transport new equipment to the front. Russian occupation authorities are reportedly resorting to punitive measures against civilian populations in occupied Ukraine due to Russian occupation authorities’ decreasing influence over civilians.


csütörtök reggel
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2023.06.09 07:09 bonanoinsurance Workers Comp Insurance Louisiana: A Comprehensive Guide

Workers Comp Insurance Louisiana: A Comprehensive Guide
Workers Comp Insurance Louisiana is a crucial aspect for businesses operating in the state. It provides financial protection and support to employees in case of work-related injuries or illnesses, ensuring that they receive the necessary medical care and wage-loss compensation. This article aims to provide an in-depth look at Workers Comp Louisiana, covering the legal requirements, benefits, and the process of obtaining this insurance.
1. Introduction to Workers Comp Insurance Louisiana
Workers Comp Insurance Louisiana, also known as workers' compensation, is a type of accident insurance paid by employers. It is designed to benefit employees who are injured in the workplace or contract a work-related sickness. In Louisiana, almost all employers need workers' compensation insurance for their business, regardless of the number of employees. This coverage helps pay for medical bills, missed wages, ongoing care, and other expenses related to work-related injuries or illnesses.
Bonano Insurance offers Worker’s Compensation Insurance specifically designed for employees' benefit. With no payroll deduction made from an employee's salary, it covers medical expenses if they are injured in the workplace or contract a work-related sickness. Furthermore, it also covers wage-loss compensation until the employee returns to work.
2. Louisiana Workers' Compensation Requirements
2.1 Mandatory Coverage for Most Employers
Louisiana workers' compensation laws require most employers to have this coverage, even if they have just one employee. This law applies to various types of workers, including:
· Full-time employees
· Part-time employees
· Minors
· Seasonal employees
Sole proprietors without employees and corporate officers owning a certain percentage of a business may not need this coverage. However, if a business has any workers, it will likely require a workers' compensation policy.
2.2 Exemptions from Workers' Compensation Coverage
Certain types of workers and industries are exempt from the requirement to have workers' compensation insurance. These exemptions include:
· Employees of a private residential homeowner
· Musicians and performers providing services outlined in a performance contract
· Real estate brokers or salespersons licensed to do business in Louisiana
· Employees of a private unincorporated farm
· Landmen performing exploration, development, production, or mineral transportation services
· Employees covered by the Federal Employer's Liability Act, Longshoremen's and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act, and Jones Act
· Members of airplane crews involved in dusting or spraying operations
· Uncompensated officers and members of a board of directors for nonprofit organizations
Employers should be aware of these exemptions and ensure they comply with the state's requirements to avoid penalties.
3. Classification of Employees and Avoiding Fraud
When obtaining Workers Comp Insurance Louisiana, it is essential to classify employees based on their type of work to ensure they have the right coverage. Misclassifying employees is often considered fraud and can result in severe consequences for the employer. Businesses should maintain accurate records and consult with an insurance professional to ensure they are in compliance with the state's regulations.
4. Understanding Workers' Comp Benefits in Louisiana
Workers' compensation insurance in Louisiana provides various benefits to employees who suffer from work-related injuries or illnesses. These benefits include:
4.1 Medical Care
Workers' comp insurance covers medical expenses for accidents or injuries that require medical care and happen on the job. This includes doctor visits, hospital stays, medications, and any necessary treatments related to the injury or illness.
4.2 Lost Wages and Indemnity Benefits
When an employee is unable to earn money and needs time off to recover before they can return to work, workers' comp insurance provides lost wages, also known as indemnity benefits.
4.3 Disability Benefits
In situations where an employee has a severe injury and returning to work isn't an option, workers' comp insurance provides disability benefits. This includes temporary total disability, where an employee receives an average weekly wage, and permanent total disability for employees who suffer severe on-the-job injuries.
4.4 Ongoing Care
Workers' comp insurance covers ongoing care when an injury or illness requires additional treatment, such as physical therapy or vocational rehabilitation.
4.5 Funeral Costs and Death Benefits
In the unfortunate event that an employee dies on the job, workers' comp insurance provides coverage for funeral expenses and other costs.
4.6 Illnesses and Repetitive Stress Injuries
Workers' comp insurance covers illnesses resulting from harmful chemicals or other materials and repetitive stress injuries that occur over time.
5. Obtaining Workers' Comp Insurance in Louisiana
There are several ways for a business in Louisiana to obtain workers' compensation insurance, including:
· Being a member of an approved Group Self-Insurance Fund
· Applying to the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Workers' Compensation to become an approved self-insured employer
· Obtaining a policy through a private workers' compensation insurer, such as the Louisiana Workers' Compensation Corporation, a non-profit organization that supplies workers' comp products throughout the state
For a list of approved companies, visit the Louisiana Workforce Commission's website\_WorkComp\_EmployerCoverage.asp or ask your insurance company directly.
6. Filing Workers' Compensation Claims in Louisiana
To file a claim for workers' compensation in Louisiana, injured workers should notify their employer within 30 days of the injury. It is always better to file a claim closer to the time of the injury.
Injured employees may not receive benefits if workers' compensation claims for medical treatment are not filed within one to three years of the accident date. If there's a dispute about the medical benefits an employee receives, submit a Disputed Claim Form for Medical Treatment Appeal to the Office of Workers Compensation Administration Medical Director. Employees will likely need to file a disputed claim for compensation form, and depending on the case, disputed claims can take six months or more to resolve.
7. Importance of Compliance and Avoiding Penalties
Failing to comply with Workers Comp Insurance Louisiana requirements can result in severe penalties, such as fines, penalties, or even imprisonment. Employers are responsible for maintaining accurate records, classifying employees correctly, and ensuring that they have the necessary workers' compensation coverage in place. Working with a professional insurance agent can help businesses ensure they comply with the state's regulations and avoid potential penalties.
8. Partnering with Bonano Insurance for Workers' Compensation Coverage
Bonano Insurance offers comprehensive Workers' Compensation Insurance designed for employees' benefit. With a focus on providing quality coverage and exceptional customer service, Bonano Insurance is a trusted partner for businesses seeking Workers Comp Insurance Louisiana. Contact Bonano Insurance today to discuss your workers' compensation needs and receive a personalized quote.
9. Staying Informed and Up-to-Date on Workers' Compensation Regulations
Workers' compensation laws and regulations can change over time. It is essential for business owners to stay informed and up-to-date on any changes to ensure compliance and continued coverage for their employees. Regularly reviewing your workers' compensation policy, consulting with an insurance professional, and monitoring updates from the Louisiana Workforce Commission can help businesses maintain compliance and protect their employees.
10. Conclusion
Workers Comp Insurance Louisiana is a vital component for businesses operating in the state, providing financial protection and support for employees in case of work-related injuries or illnesses. Understanding the legal requirements, benefits, and the process of obtaining this insurance is crucial for employers to ensure compliance and maintain a safe and supportive work environment. By partnering with a trusted insurance provider like Bonano Insurance, businesses can secure comprehensive workers' compensation coverage and provide their employees with the protection they need.
submitted by bonanoinsurance to u/bonanoinsurance [link] [comments]

2023.06.09 06:44 blissiictrl Valving and balancing liquids

Is it just me or does it feel like liquid balancing is somewhat broken? I have just finished building a 75GW nuclear plant which recycles waste for plutonium fuel, then sinks the plut rods (I know it's a waste but there's no waste stream!). I keep hitting snags with liquid lines, especially on out-feed and I feel like valves don't seem to work entirely as expected.
I come from a process engineering background (mechanical process designer) and I usually operate check valves after a pump or as a directional controller if I don't want backflow but when I built my nuclear plant I was having issues where alumina solution wasn't flowing out to the scrap refineries properly, and similarly with the heavy oil residue refineries it didn't seem to balance out well unless I threw a mk1 pump after each balancing junction.
Any tips or insights here?
submitted by blissiictrl to SatisfactoryGame [link] [comments]

2023.06.09 06:42 raesyktoast No sissy six man’s with 17 operator kills

No sissy six man’s with 17 operator kills
Me and my friends have vowed to boycott sissy six man’s on Ashika. This gameplay video shows what happens when you do that. We got 17 operator kills by defending our place on power plant. We got swarmed by teams left and right the entire match. Please watch and let me know what you guys think of my teams gameplay here.
submitted by raesyktoast to DMZ [link] [comments]

2023.06.09 06:13 TeddyGoodman This is 60 cents more than a living wage in the city this job is posted.

This is 60 cents more than a living wage in the city this job is posted.
I could make more just driving a forklift in a warehouse or bartending 3 times a week.
submitted by TeddyGoodman to TheBrewery [link] [comments]

2023.06.09 05:27 duckingman Full Stack Accountant

Now that most tech sector are desperately trying to stay alive, I've seen more and more people putting "full stack" in their job title. Full Stack Developer, Full Stack Digital Marketer, Full Stack HR. It's inevitable same trend will befall accountants.

Accounting job posting in 2030.
Full Stack Accountant required, will be responsible for:
  1. A/P and A/R
  2. Tax entry and reporting
  3. Cash flow forecasting
  4. Monthly financial reporting
  5. Strategic management accounting (ad hoc)
  6. Operational costing analysis
Salary: 20% higher than minimum wage.
submitted by duckingman to Accounting [link] [comments]

2023.06.09 05:24 calmthanever The Very Best Vendors That Sell Asphalt Plant In Indonesia

The Very Best Vendors That Sell Asphalt Plant In Indonesia
Asphalt plants are sold by vendors worldwide. If you're in the market for equipment such as this, and you're trying to spend less, you really should try buying coming from a vendor operating out of Indonesia. If you discover the ideal vendors that sell asphalt plant in Indonesia, you'll be capable of cut costs while still purchasing a high-quality product.

Know What You Would Like

One of many criteria you'll wish to evaluate vendors on is the selection that they can offer. Make sure the vendor offers a variety of options that be right for you. For example, if you're trying to find a fully automatic asphalt plant, you should get a vendor that sells many asphalt plant business for sale that fall under this category.

Together with having clearly defined expectations for the product that you're buying, you should have a precise picture of what you really are ready to spend. Find out if the owner can assist your finances. Make sure you won't buy something that you'll regret.

Be Aware Of Brands

You could be well-familiar with several of the top brands that manufacturer heavy machinery within your region. However, it's likely you are aware of far less about Indonesian manufacturers. Should you get to know highly respected brands, you'll have the ability to hunt for these brands as you may shop.

Which brands should you really be keeping a watchful eye out for? Aimix is a brand that a great many people know and trust, and Ammann has an excellent reputation as well. Invest some time researching brands to ensure you'll possess a better idea of what to anticipate from certain manufacturers.

Ask For Advice

Talk with a few of your colleagues in the market and find out if any one of them been employed by with Indonesian-based vendors previously. If they have, you must make them share their experiences with you. Determine whether there is a particular vendor that numerous professionals recommend. Check more info here:

Even though you aren't able to talk to someone personally, you can obtain a broad spectrum of opinions online. If you this, you'll have a better picture of the things various vendors are offering.

Look At The Small Print

You won't need to be caught off-guard when your gear is shipped over to you. To preclude this from happening, there are some specific things you will need to search for before you officially place an order.

Find out when the product you happen to be buying is included by any sort of warranty. Check to see what is and isn't included under that warranty. You should also learn more about the shipping process. What will you be shelling out for shipping? How long will shipping take? How will your equipment be protected because it is shipped? These are the basic form of questions you'll want in order to answer.

When your goal is to find the best vendors that sell asphalt plant in Indonesia, you'll would like to keep your advice above in mind. When you know where to start, buying from Indonesia can be a very positive experience.
submitted by calmthanever to u/calmthanever [link] [comments]

2023.06.09 04:58 AIMIXindonesia Unlocking the Potential of AMP Aspal Mixing Plant

Unlocking the Potential of AMP Aspal Mixing Plant
AMP Aspal Mixing Plants play a pivotal role in the construction industry, providing a reliable and efficient solution for asphalt production. This article aims to explore the various aspects of AMP Aspal Mixing Plants and uncover their untapped potential. By delving into their components, advantages, operation factors, advanced technologies, and sustainability benefits, we can unlock a new level of understanding and utilization for these plants.

Advantages of AMP Aspal Mixing Plants

AMP Aspal Mixing Plants offer several advantages over traditional asphalt mixing methods. One key advantage is the increased production capacity and efficiency they provide. With their advanced design and technology, these plants can produce a larger volume of high-quality asphalt mix in a shorter time frame. The enhanced control over mix quality is another significant advantage, as it allows for precise adjustments and consistency in the produced asphalt. Moreover, AMP Aspal Mixing Plants offer cost-effectiveness and sustainability benefits by optimizing resource usage and reducing waste.

Key Factors for Successful AMP Aspal Mixing Plant Operations

To unlock the full potential of AMP Aspal Mixing Plants, certain key factors need to be considered during their operations. Proper site selection and preparation are crucial to ensure smooth plant installation and operation. Calibration and regular maintenance of plant components, such as the burner, conveyor systems, and filters, are essential for optimal performance. Additionally, implementing robust quality control measures and testing procedures guarantees that the produced asphalt meets the required standards.

Advanced Technologies in AMP Aspal Mixing Plants

The potential of AMP Aspal Mixing Plants can be further unlocked through the integration of advanced technologies. Automation and computerized control systems enable precise monitoring and control of the asphalt mixing process. Data analytics and real-time monitoring provide valuable insights for optimizing plant performance and detecting any deviations. Innovations focused on energy efficiency and emissions control contribute to sustainable asphalt production while meeting environmental regulations.

Maximizing Productivity and Quality in AMP Aspal Mixing Plants

To harness the full potential of AMP Aspal Mixing Plants, maximizing productivity and maintaining quality are crucial. Optimal mix design and material selection play a significant role in achieving the desired asphalt properties. Efficient workflow management, including proper logistics planning and real-time communication, minimizes delays and maximizes productivity. Continuous training and skill development programs for plant operators ensure their competency in managing the complex operations effectively.

AMP Aspal Mixing Plants for Sustainable Asphalt Production

In today's environmentally conscious world, sustainable asphalt production is paramount. AMP Aspal Mixing Plants offer opportunities for sustainable practices. Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) can be incorporated into new mixes, reducing waste and conserving resources. Strategies to minimize environmental impact, such as energy-efficient operations and emissions control, align with sustainability goals. Compliance with sustainability standards and regulations further promotes responsible asphalt production.

Overcoming Challenges in AMP Aspal Mixing Plant Operations

Unlocking the potential of AMP Aspal Mixing Plants involves addressing common challenges encountered during their operations. Equipment breakdowns and maintenance issues can impact productivity, emphasizing the importance of regular maintenance and troubleshooting. Weather conditions can also pose challenges, requiring proactive measures to mitigate their impact. Strategies to minimize production delays and downtime are essential for unlocking the full potential of these plants.


Unlocking the potential of AMP Aspal Mixing Plants requires a comprehensive understanding of their components, advantages, operation factors, advanced technologies, sustainability benefits, and challenges. By embracing the advancements in these plants, we can maximize their productivity, enhance asphalt quality, and promote sustainable practices. The opportunities presented by AMP Aspal Mixing Plants pave the way for a more efficient and environmentally friendly future in asphalt production. It is through this understanding and utilization that we truly unlock their full potential.
submitted by AIMIXindonesia to u/AIMIXindonesia [link] [comments]

2023.06.09 04:42 modern-machine glass bottle vodka filling machine,Liquor filling equipment,wine production line

vodka filling machine
Modern vodka filling machine is suitable for filling and sealing vodka, liquor and other alcoholic beverages. It has the characteristics of fast filling and sealing speed, stable machine operation, good sealing quality, beautiful appearance, convenient use and maintenance, touch screen operation, frequency conversion speed regulation, etc.

submitted by modern-machine to u/modern-machine [link] [comments]

2023.06.09 04:40 BrianC_ The Future of the NACL Business Model

The news release was pretty vague and poorly worded, so this is all just an educated guess for how they're planning to transition the NACL.
The two major changes are these --
A new NACL business model, in addition to the previously committed $300,000, that shares revenue between the tournament operator and participating teams to drive towards long-term sustainability
Improvements to the NACL governance model, including a Team Participating Agreement (TPA) and vetting process of the participating team organizations
The way this reads to me is that the organizations that wanted to leave the NACL are still free to leave the NACL. And, in the future, they'll also be free to come and go as long as they abide by the yet undisclosed TPA.
So, they're clearly transitioning to a more voluntary participation model.
In theory, this is better. Since, according to the first point, there will be revenue sharing with the tournament operator in the future, this means that the tournament operator, organizations, and players should all be on the same page in terms of the goal of the league. Their goal is not to just be a marketing expense for Riot or to help Riot sell more RP/skins/etc. Their goal is not to just sit on an investment with the hope that the value of their spot in the league will grow in value. Their goal should be to be an entertainment product that generates views, fans, and ultimately tournament / team sponsorships. Their sustainability now depends on that. It's much more similar to the ERLs.
Now, content matters. Performance matters. Player personalities matter. PR matters. Marketability matters. Like we saw with DSG, the tournament and teams are going to need to be creative again.
And, because that's all known up-front, the teams and players that ultimately opt to join the league will know what their business situation is. In the event that any team in the league isn't on board or isn't carrying their weight, the TPA means they can be removed.
Ultimately, if league still functions as a developmental league, it means a lot of these characteristics might also filter upwards into the LCS. Because the tournament organizer and teams have to more honestly generate money through views and fans rather than depend on VC support, the players that they develop will also have to fit that mold. So, if they eventually make it to the LCS, they might bring a long some of that marketability.
On top of this, if the new player contracts are longer, it's also possible that teams will have the option to make money through player buy-outs when LCS teams bring them up. So, from a player development PoV, developing players could now have a very strong financial incentive.
I don't know how the tournament operator agreed to this, but I guess Riot could've strong armed them into accepting their future reality.
The main issue I'm seeing is that it's a steep buy-in for no guaranteed return on investment. If they're going to a decentralized league as was suggested, that'll be much easier to stomach, but you'll still be on the hook for player salaries, coaching salaries, and potentially travel fees to live events. If it's still the same system, that's way too much money to pay. Player salaries, housing, coaches, etc. For that amount of money, it's just not a good investment and will instead be a passion project.
submitted by BrianC_ to leagueoflegends [link] [comments]

2023.06.09 04:33 calmthanever Three Tips for Maximizing the Performance of a Jaw Crusher

Three Tips for Maximizing the Performance of a Jaw Crusher

When you're choosing a jaw crusher, you'll desire to take time to go with a durable and-quality product. You'll should also make certain you're getting excellent performance out of your equipment. If you want to enhance the performance of your own jaw crusher, these are some simple suggestions you can attempt.

Conduct A Simulation Prior To Starting Utilizing Your New Machinery

Don't start using your jaw crusher without conducting some type of analysis. You'll wish to have a clearer picture of how your jaw crusher is going to be used. Conducting a simulation will help you to spot potential issues before they happen. You'll have the ability to address issues and be sure that your primary jaw crusher plant works effectively.

There are numerous of tools and resources that can present you with useful theoretical data. You might need to purchase software that provides you with this kind of data. Although it boosts your spending, it's still a rewarding investment. Analyzing what you're likely to be doing ahead of time is a terrific way to avoid potentially costly mistakes.

Figure Out How Your Production Line Will Probably Be Operated

You'll possess a better knowledge about your jaw crusher and then any other machinery that's in your production line when you see how it's going to be operated in advance. Determine who is going to be dealing with your jaw crusher. Be sure they're properly trained and learn how the machine should really be used.

Once you know exactly how your production line is going to be operated, you'll be capable of develop a plan that can help you to increase efficiency. Whenever people are operating more proficiently, it's only natural that you'll visit a better performance through your jaw crusher. Properly training your workers can also help you to improve performance from your machine. Make certain that everyone which will be working together with the machine knows what's expected from their store. Check more info here:

Give Your Equipment The Maintenance It Needs

Even if you select a top-of-the-line jaw crusher, you will definitely have difficulties with your machinery should you don't provide it with the appropriate maintenance. Equipment this way needs to be maintained, and an absence of maintenance could cause numerous problems for you. Actually, without maintenance, your machinery can even end up breaking down.

Look at the manual that was included with your jaw crusher to help you see what type of maintenance it requires. Maintenance doesn't take considerable time, also it can dramatically boost the lifespan of your heavy machinery. Heavy devices are expensive, which is the reason you'll want to make sure your machinery remains in like-new condition. With regular maintenance, you can avoid performance problems whilst keeping your machine running perfectly.

If you've dedicated to a jaw crusher, you'll want to take steps to increase its performance. With all the care and some planning, you can find better performance from the heavy equipment. Be sure that you're getting the best possible performance from your jaw crusher philippines.
submitted by calmthanever to u/calmthanever [link] [comments]

2023.06.09 04:32 oooh___ahhh Help!

I saw this at the cash saver yesterday, and I’m wondering if anybody wants to meet up and discuss some options before the scoping.
submitted by oooh___ahhh to CheathamCounty [link] [comments]

2023.06.09 04:29 Bubzoluck [30 min read] The Opioid Epidemic before the Opioid Epidemic - Exploring Morphine Derivatives and the First Opium War (Part 1)

[30 min read] The Opioid Epidemic before the Opioid Epidemic - Exploring Morphine Derivatives and the First Opium War (Part 1)
Hello and welcome back to SAR! I have written and rewritten this post a few times now and I think I have landed on a format I am happy with. When we talk about the impact of medicine on history its important to get the context right, and I think I have found a way to talk about our topic. So what is it? No chemical is more important to the world of medicine than Opium, okay maybe Penicillin, but today we will say its Opium. Principally an analgesic (anti-pain), the Opium Poppy allowed for humans to take away pain in great degrees and further development on the natural chemicals has opened up surgery and post-op recovery. While we tend to look at the recent Opioid Epidemic as the only issue regarding Opiates, history reveals to us a very similar precursor. Also please head over to u/jtjdp post about morphine derivatives here! She does an amazing job explaining the higher level concepts of medicinal chemistry that I just wouldn’t do justice. Alright, enough quibbling, let’s get to the good stuff.
Disclaimer: this post is not designed to be medical advice. It is merely a look at the chemistry of medications and their general effect on the body. Each person responds differently to therapy. Please talk to your doctor about starting, stopping, or changing medical treatment.

How Much do you Know About Pain?

To be alive is to feel pain, and emo sentiments aside, this is one of the biggest biological properties of the central nervous system. When you think about it, how does the body take external stimuli and allow you to recognize it? The answer is the sensory nervous system which is responsible for sensing many different types of stimuli: temperature, pressure, pain, and chemicals. These sensory neurons carry the information from the extremities and transmit it up the spinal cord into the brain for processing. From there the brain alerts you to the issue allowing you to correct whatever problem is causing the pain. Let’s take a look:
  • We call these receptors Nociceptors and activation of these neurons in the periphery leads to a signal being sent towards the spinal cord. Those peripheral nerves eventually complex with the Dorsal Horn of the spinal cord and interface with the central nervous system to transfer the pain signal. This signal is then sent Ascending to the Thalamus where the pain signal is recognized and initiates a response (such as pulling your hand away from the hot stove). But that’s not the full story, the brain also sends signals back down Descending to modify the incoming signal and dampen it. Its this modifying that makes pain fade over time when you aren’t focusing on it—otherwise the brain would be overwhelmed by the repetitive signal and continuously think injury is still happening. Now let’s divide this process into its two parts, first up the Ascending pathway.
  • As the Action Potential travels from the periphery towards the Spine it causes the influx of Calcium into the Presynaptic Neuron. This neuron is what carries the original signal to then transfer into the Spine for further traveling. Eventually we reach the Synapse where the finger-nerve and spine meet and we get the transfer of information via Neurotransmitters. In this case, two chemicals are released: Glutamate and Substance P (which literally stands for Substance Pain). Glutamate will activate two receptors (AMPA and NMDA) which are Excitatory and stimulate the continuation of the pain signal up to the brain. Substance P activates the NK1 receptor which enhances the frequency of the pain signal (the throbbing) and the intensity of the pain burst. So to simplify, Glutamate allows the signal to be passed up to the brain but depending on the strength of the original pain signal more or less Substance P is released which modulates the strength and attention-grabbing nature of it. Okay great, we sent the pain pathway up and it will get processed in multiple different parts of the brain. But the brain can’t have that signal stinging it so it must send information back down to dampen that pain signal. This is where that aforementioned Descending pathway comes in. Above you can see how the blue line reaches down out of the brain and back into the spine to turn ‘off’ the signal. This is the basis of Analgesia or pain relief.
  • Okay so now we have to divide the action of the Descending pathway which acts to dampen and modulate the original signal coming into the brain. Now, normally at rest this Descending neuron is inhibited so any fresh incoming signal is not inhibited from the get go but once that pain signal does come in, we get the good stuff! In response to pain the brain releases substances called Endorphins which activate the mu Opioid Receptor (MOR) located on the Descending pathway. Now MOR are inhibitory in nature so they are inhibiting the inhibitory resting state of neurons, or in other words, are allowing the Descending neuron to activate. And this is an important fact to recognize, Opiates do not inhibit pain, they inhibit the physiology of the nervous system that prevents modulation of the pain signal.
    • Once the inhibition is inhibited, the Descending neuron is free to release two neurotransmitters onto the nerve that was carrying the original pain signal. Both Norepinephrine and Serotonin are released to activate their respective receptors which inhibit the release of Substance P and Glutamate thus decreasing the incoming pain signal. Likewise MOR receptors are found directly on the incoming nerve and further prevent the release of Glutamate and Substance P as well as being found on the Ascending neuron preventing the activation of the NMDA/AMPA and NK1 receptors. The result: dampened incoming signal and decreased pain sense being sent to the brain.

The Stars Align in the Shape of a Poppy
To start our story about Opiates we need to turn to the great precursor—Opium. Opium itself is not a chemical but rather a really thick liquor (called latex) that contains a high concentration of Morphine (and some Codeine). There are 38 species of Poppy plants but only two produce Opium is great enough supply that it is worth farming them and humans have been cultivating these varieties for as long as we have known about the plants. When humans settled into Mesopotamia (near modern day Iraq), Poppies were one of the few plants grown in plots as large grain or vegetable fields (meaning that they were thought of as valuable as food). Throughout the Greek age of medicine (pre-500 BCE) through the Islamic medicinal revolution (500 BC-1500 AD), Opium was a major component of treatment, assisted suicide, and poison. In fact its through the rise of the Muslim Caliphates that we see the export of Opium to other parts of the world, especially through the Mediterranean Sea once the Crusaders return. Opium trading to the East via the silk roads was an almost continuous affair since time immemorial and Pakistan was a major growing area for the Eastern Poppy trade.
  • By the time after the Crusades (11-13th centuries), we start to see the West’s fixation on Opium. For many reasons Europe didn’t develop many psychoactive plants to the same degree as more humid/hot climates like Africa, the Middle East, and India. This is why the importation of Opium (and also Marijuana) was such a trade commodity and staple in the development of Western medicine. During the Renaissance and the revival of Greek philosophy we start to see the re-fascination with Opium and by the 1600s we see merchants importing Laudanum into Europe for recreational and medicinal use. The standard use of Tincture of Opium (which is Opium dissolved in ethanol, a DEADLY combination) was a particularly favorite preparation which was prescribed to the lowest day-worker all the way up to kings.
    • The importation and use of Opium exploded in the late 1700s once the British conquered a major Poppy growing region of India. This region (western India and most of Pakistan) was originally slated to grow cotton like the American colonies but the region wasn’t wet enough to sustain the plant—it could however grow copious fields of Poppy plants to create Opium. Throughout the 18th century the British Raj became the largest exporter of Opium to Europe and after the discovery that Mercury and Arsenic may not be safe, Opium took over their duties. By 1780 almost all major remedies incorporated the use of Opium in some capacity and with the huge supply, it was incredibly cheap.
  • Poppy wasn’t only important to the British for its medicinal properties but also to bolster the huge amount of loss they were incurring in global trade to one trade partner—China. After she made contact with China in the mid-1500s, Britain starting to import HUGE amounts of tea as the Brits became literally addicted to the substance. By 1800 a full 15% of the ENTIRE British Empire’s revenue was being spent on importing tea, that’s 30 million pounds per YEAR, leading to a massive trade deficit. This means that more money was being sent to China literally enriching a foreign country while the British public was getting their fix on the black stuff. Oh and just in case you think things haven’t changed, Britain still accounts for 42.6% of the world’s tea consumption—seriously Brits, ever heard of coffee? Anyways, all this money leaving the British economy to be spent on non-Empire sustaining commodities was a major national security risk for the British. It would be different if they were importing gunpowder like the Dutch were or Silver as the Spanish had but literally they were consuming the riches they were spending the money on.
    • Remember too that the British were not in the best position by the turn of the 19th century—they had just lost their colonies in the Americas, involvement in the Napoleonic Wars killed a generation of men, and the push to develop industries over public health led to a focus on fast growth rather than smart growth. One of the results of the Napoleonic Wars was the British occupation of the Island of Java which developed a very potent Opium which was traded with Chinese merchants regularly. Soon British merchants realized they could rebalance the trade deficit by selling Javanese Opium into China but the small island was unable to produce enough Poppies to meet the demand. So Britain turned to another one of its colonies, India.
  • India by the end of the 1700s was a bit of a challenge. The British hold on the subcontinent was firm but they couldn’t grow the cash crops they wanted. Indian cotton was nothing compared to Egyptian or Southern American (i.e. Virginia/North Carolina/Georgia) cotton and the Indian tobacco was known for being bitter. But by the 1770s the British government realized that Poppy was an easy crop to grow and the demand across the border with China was an easy market; British traders brought their cargo to small islands off the coast of China where it was sold for silver. Initially the Chinese didn’t mind the sale of Opium in their territory—when the British traders collected the silver from the sale they would almost immediately use it to buy Chinese goods, thus driving tax revenue for the Chinese government.
  • But if you buy Opium, people are going to use that Opium. By the 1810s all trade with foreigners was restricted to just one port, Canton, and slowly the city started to develop a habit for the drug. The use of mind altering substances was curtailed pretty quickly for hundreds of years in China—the Ming Dynasty banned tobacco in 1640 and the Qing banned Madak (a powdered Opium containing tobacco) was similarly banned in 1729. But by 1790 more and more Chinese citizens were becoming addicted to the substance; what started as a recreational drug slowly became a crippling addiction that took hold over Canton. For a rigid society, the crippling Opiate addiction was a moral corruption for the Qing government and forced them to curtail Opium importation in 1780 and then an outright ban in 1796.
  • Knowing just how devastating the Opium was having on the inhabitants of Canton, as well as how it spread further inland, British merchants kept peddling their drug. Older ships with larger hulls were converted into floating warehouses and parked just outside of navigable waters. Once set up, Opium smugglers would pull up, purchase the Opium and avoid any oversight by the Chinese government to prevent the sale of the drug. Following their mother country, American merchants started to sell Turkish Opium, an inferior variety, at a much cheaper rate leading to drug peddling competition with more and more tons of Opium being sent into China. This drove down the price of Opium considerably which ultimately increased the demand.
    • This demand eventually led to reversal of trade, meaning that more silver was leaving China to pay for Opium than the British were using to pay for Chinese goods. American and European traders could show up in Canton with holds full of Opium, sell it off for a profit, and then make a tidy silver profit to bring back to Europe. Likewise the importation of cheap machine-made cotton, furs, clocks, and steel into China driving down domestic profits.

Let’s Look at the Drugs a Bit
Stepping away from the history a bit, let’s introduce the Family. Okay so we understand how pain is sent to the brain and how it modulates but there is so much more to the mu Opioid Receptor and that’s not the only kind of Opioid receptor that we have. The two most clinically useful receptors are the Mu and Kappa Opioid Receptors (KOR) because they result in analgesia but there is a Delta Opioid Receptor (DOR) that is worth mentioning. The majority of the Opiates that we know and love are Mu agonists but there are some very interesting Kappa agonists that are worth mentioning as well.
  • Above is a chart that shows the binding affinities of select Opiates to the Mu receptor. The smaller the number is, the more tightly they bond. Now affinity is different than potency—potency is a measure of how much drug (in g) is required to produce the same effect. So even though morphine has a higher affinity than fentanyl, fentanyl has a MUCH more potent effect (which is why it can be so dangerous, you only need a little). Now many of the opiates cause the same effect so I want to spend more time on what makes them all so different:
  • First up we have the 5-Ring Morphinians which are derived from the natural product Morphine. These structures have 5 component parts: an aromatic benzene ring (A), a completely saturated bridge ring (B), a partially unsaturated ring with an alcohol attachment (C), a piperidine heterocycle above the rest of the structure (D) and finally a ether linkage between the top and bottom of the structure to keep it fairly rigid (E). Truthfully we are only going to focus on two locations—firstly the top alcohol (red circle) can be methylated to form Codeine, a natural Prodrug of Morphine. A Prodrug is one that is biologically inactive but goes through an initial metabolism once ingested that makes it active.
  • In fact it’s this initial metabolism of Codeine that makes it very interesting. In order for Codeine to exert any pain relief it needs to be converted to Morphine which actually exerts the desirable properties. This is done by the liver enzyme CYP2D6 which is a pretty minor pathway for Codeine—only about 10% of the Codeine is actually converted to Morphine to have some action. Because of this 2D6 dependent pathway we have to be careful about administering drugs that might inhibit the 2D6 pathway because that would mean we are preventing codeine from being active. Drugs like Fluoxetine (Prozac) and Paroxetine (Paxil) are strong 2D6 inhibitors and so if we administered Codeine to someone taking this drug they’d never get any benefit from the Codeine. In addition there are genetic/ethnic differences that pharmacists can account for such as 2D6 activity. If you are someone with very little 2D6 activity then you would also not convert Codeine to Morphine and thus get no action from the drug—this may be a reason why some people say Codeine doesn’t work for them. Another reason could be that they are Rapid Metabolizers and quickly convert the Codeine to Morphine and thus get a massive hit quickly after ingestion—in that cause you’d need a much smaller dose than another person for the same effect.
  • A different drug that is the opposite of Codeine is Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) which has a Ketone on ring C. This ketone and the lack of the double bond on this ring increases the lipophilicity of the drug and increases its ability to penetrate into the brain and thus have a greater effect. In fact Hydromorphone is 5-10x more potent than Morphine due to its greater ability to penetrate into the brain and increased receptor affinity for the mu receptor. Because the A ring OH is not capped with a methyl group, we don’t need to rely on 2D6 to metabolize Hydromorphone into an active drug form which again increases the activity of this drug compared to Codeine.
  • So combine these two structural changes—the capped OH on ring A as seen in Codeine and the increased affinity found with the ketone in Hydromorphone and we get Hydrocodone (Norco, Lorcet). Well in this case you’d get a drug that has very good affinity for the mu receptor (better than codeine) BUT is still reliant on the small 2D6 pathway for activation (worse than morphine). In this regard only about 10% of Hydrocodone is active at a time. We can see this effect in the relative doses for equivalent effect: to match the effect of 30mg of Morphine, we’d need only 7.5mg of Hydromorphone (more active) but need 200mg of Codeine (less active).
  • This brings us to our last drug of this class, Oxycodone which has a special OH group found on Ring B. What you’ll notice is that Oxycodone has that capped OH on ring A so it requires metabolism through 2D6 just like Codeine and Hydrocodone. When it is uncapped it becomes Oxymorphone which has 3 times as much effect as Morphine BUT that extra OH makes Oxycodone an exclusive Mu receptor agonist. Unlike the other drugs which may go to other receptors causing side effects (more on this later).
  • Next up I want to look at some Mu opioid receptor Antagonists or those than inhibit the function of the opioid receptor. Looking at the first two drugs, Naloxone and Naltrexone, we can see that they have the structure similar to Hydromorphone so they would have incredible brain penetration and affinity for opioid receptors BUT they contain that funky Nitrogen tail. Now normally there is a short methyl tail that is required for the function of Morphine but by adding a bulkier tail the drug is able to fit inside the receptor but prevent activation. What’s most important about these two drugs is that they have much more affinity for the receptor than other opiates. We can see this effect in the graph above: when no Naloxone is present, Fentanyl occupies the opiate receptor about 75% of the time. But as soon as Naloxone is administered that number drops swiftly (within minutes)--this is because Naloxone has a higher affinity for sitting in the receptor than Fentanyl. Think of it like the bully Naloxone coming up and pushing the poor defenseless Fentanyl off the swings so the bully can play on it (except in this instance Fentanyl is causing an overdose and we need to save someone’s life).
  • Buprenorphine is similar but it is a Partial Agonist instead of being a full antagonist. Buprenorphine is not a 5-ring Morphinian byt a 6-ring Oripavine that has a few different modifications. The biggest additions is that it has the bulky Nitrogen tail found in full Antagonists but it has this funky C ring tail which fights the antagonism. The result is a tug of war between the antagonism of the Nitrogen tail and the agonism of this new C-ring tail resulting in Partial agonism—so if you took Buprenorphine you’d notice a markedly decreased pain relieving ability but importantly there is a ceiling effect, its much harder to overdose on Buprenorphine than other full agonists. In addition in the second graph we can see that Buprenorphine has the greatest affinity for the receptor than our other agonists which prevents someone from taking a more potent opiate while taking Buprenorphine. In this case the bully is already sitting on the swing and scaring away the other kids thus preventing them from having a turn (and potentially causing an overdose). This does mean that if someone was taking a more potent drug (like Fentanyl) and then took Buprenorphine, it would cause withdrawal just like Naloxone or Naltrexone.
  • Speaking of withdrawal, let’s take a look at how that happens. Remember that the pain signal is caused by the activation of AMPA and NMDA receptors from the peripheral nerve. AMPA is a type of receptor called a G-Protein Coupled Receptor or GPCR which in this case is linked to an Excitatory G-protein which leads to the activation of the nerve. When AMPA is activated, the G-protein (Ga) activates an enzyme called Adenylate Cyclase (AC) which increases the production of pro-activity cAMP—or in simpler terms—when AMPA is activated, it leads to an increase in levels of pro-pain molecule cAMP. The Opioid receptor is also a GPCR but it is linked to an inhibitory G-protein which prevents the action of Adenylate Cyclase and thus leads to a decrease in cAMP levels. So Opiates prevent pro-pain cAMP signaling from continuing.
    • In the second graph we can see how tolerance forms. Initially (A), Adenylate Cyclase and cAMP levels are not affected by having opiates even though their ability to push along the pain signal is blocked. After a few hours, the leftover cAMP is degraded and cAMP levels start to drop significantly (B). In response to these levels going down, the activity of Adenylate Cyclase starts to increase and increase (C) which raises the level of cAMP. This rise in Adenylate Cyclase activity opposes the action of the opiate which necessitates the need for increased doses of Opiates and is why tolerance forms. As sustained inhibition of Adenylate Cyclase continues, the body upregulates Adenylate Cyclase activity to create more cAMP and to combat this we increase the dose.
    • Now what if after years of taking an Opiate we suddenly administer Naloxone, an Opiate antagonist. Well after weeks to months of taking an Opiate, the level of Adenylate Cyclase activity is WAY above baseline. When you administer the antagonist, suddenly Adenylate Cyclase is able to produce a TON of cAMP that normally is blocked which leads to a MASSIVE amount of downstream signaling. The result is intense nausea and vomiting, stomach cramps, fever, anxiety, insomnia, and cravings. Thankfully the withdrawal process ends after about 72 hours but is one of the worst experiences someone can go through which is why proper down-tapering of Opiates is extremely important.

A Change in Trade Policy
Oh, you’re still here. Neat! So by the 1820s the Qing dynasty was running into many problems regarding Opium. Firstly they needed the Opium taxes to fund their efforts to put down the White Lotus Rebellion and retain power. But after almost 30 years of trade the effects on Chinese communities could not be ignored along with local officials operating under the imperial trade department, the Hong, profiting from bribes to allow Opium. Regardless of initial efforts things were getting out of hand for the Qing government. In 1800, about 4000 chests of Opium or 560,000 pounds entered the country but by 1830 that number exploded to 20,000 chests or about 3 million pounds. But more than the amount of Opium actually entering the country was the incessant rudeness of the British government to open trade.
  • One of the “problems” for the British traders was how clamped down trade was with China. By 1800 all trade was limited to just Canton and the Hong was a strict master of trade. Foreigners were not allowed to appeal decisions made by the Hong and only Chinese traders could sell goods further inland than Canton. Traders chafed against this extreme oversight and sent hundreds of letters to the Hong requesting special dispensations which were summarily denied. Things changed significantly in 1834 when the Chinese trade was de-monopolized away from the East India Company allowing any private trader to get involved in the Eastern trade.
  • In August of 1834, the British sent Lord William John Napier to Macau as superintendent of Chinese trade with the explicit order to follow all Chinese regulations. Thinking he knows best, Napier decided that the restrictive Chinese trade system was too restrictive and sent a letter to the Viceroy of Canton. This was unheard of—NO foreign traders were allowed to speak directly with Chinese officials and the Viceroy refused to accept it. So why not double down by ordering two British ships to BOMBARD two Pearl River forts as a show of force? Luckily Napier died of Typhus almost directly after else it would have resulted in a full blown war.
  • In 1839 the Qing government appointed Lin Zexu as the Opium czar to completely eradicate the Opium trade from China. Lin banned the sale of Opium in China completely, set up rehabilitation centers for those affected by the drug, and put addicts to work to distract them while detoxing. Lin demanded that all Opium supplies must be surrendered to Qing authorities and any Chinese citizen disobeying the order would be punishable by death. He even went as far as closing the Pearl River Channel, trapping British traders in Canton and seizing their Opium warehouse stockpiles.
  • The replacement for Napier was Admiral Sir Charles Elliot who protested the seizure of the Opium stockpile but knew that they could do nothing. He ordered all Opium ships to flee and prepare for battle which caused Lin Zexu to beseige a group of traders inside a Canton warehouse. Elliot convinced the traders to cooperate with the Chinese government and surrender their stock, saying that the British government would compensate for the lost Opium (which he had no authority to do). During April and May 1839 the British (and American) traders to surrender 20,000 chests of Opium which was burned for three days outside Canton. Following the burning, trade resumed to normal except no more Opium was allowed. Like many other instances of the government removing legitimate sale of a drug, the black market increased markedly.
  • In July 1839 a new scandal rocked the British-Chinese trade system; two British sailors became drunk and beat a man death outside of his village. In response, Superintendent Elliot arrested the two men and paid compensation to the villager’s family for the loss of the man but Elliot refused to hand over the sailors to the Qing government. Lin Zexu saw this as a blatant disregard for Chinese law—afterall traders needed to understand that they can’t just come to China and violate Chinese law as they saw fit. Elliot offered to hold a trial on a British ship in front of Chinese officials to show that the men would not get off free. This incident would start the smoldering.
    • On September 4th, Elliot sent two ships to Kowloon to buy food and provisions from Chinese peasants. While approaching the harbor, three Chinese war junks gave permission to the two British ships to trade but that permission was rescinded by the commander of Kowloon fort. Elliot fumed against the slight and said that if the British were not allowed to trade by 3pm, he would fire on the fort. 3pm passed and the British opened fire on the fort causing the Chinese junks to return fire. The fighting continued for 7 hours until nightfall and Elliot had to prevent the British officers from pressing the attack, thus ending the Battle of Kowloon. Having driven off the Chinese ships, the British purchased the supplies they needed while the Kowloon commander claimed that both ships were sunk and 50 British sailors killed.
    • The reaction in Britain was about as much as you expect. Prime Minister Palmerston sent out letters to the Governor General of India to prepare marines to invade China and another letter to the Chinese Emperor telling him that Britain would send a military force. He sent a letter to Superintendent Elliot to set up a blockade on the Pearl River and capture Chusan Island. He also instructed Elliot to accomplish the following objectives:
      • Demand the respect as a British envoy from the Qing Government.
      • Secure the right for British law to be doled out on British subjects
      • Get recompense for destroyed British property, especially the illegal drugs that they destroyed
      • And most important, End the Canton System thus opening up China to free trade for the first time, ever.
Alright this is where we will leave things off for now, on the brink of war with China. Stay tuned!
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2023.06.09 04:26 PrincessoftheDead Our Towns Big Dam Problem [Part 1]

Do you know how some decisions in life just feel so right? Imagine a nice warm pizza right out of the oven. The pizza is covered in gooey cheese, warm meats, and whatever else will delight the eyes and nose so late into the night. So image, if you will, going out for just the briefest of seconds to enjoy the crisp feel of the fall air on your face. You come back to the apartment building that you, and appropriately 50 or 60 of your neighbors call home, only to find smoke billowing down the halls as you suddenly remember that you turned on the burner, and not the oven to preheat, and the smoke is from that pizza you left on the stove. If you feel like burrowing down the deepest hole after reading that, just remember that you are not alone. In the last week, I have taken a job at a hydroelectric power station as an operator, which at the time felt like an easy no-brainer decision. The job description was nothing if not a little enticing. There was a hefty sign-on bonus, more money than even I thought I was worth, and housing courtesy of the Corps of Engineers, which consider the aforementioned fire above, I needed pretty badly. My name is Kate Fugate, I am 24, and in so, so much, debt that I have moved to a small town in the northern Appalachia wilderness hoping to carve out a life here. The town is very small, having a few local stores primary consisting of convenience stores, gas stations, and dollar stores. The town is deeply forested and has recently had the honor of having this vast area be designated a National park. The houses are sandwiched into a sharp valley, consisting of a river, sprawling train tracks, and speckled with bridges of all makes and builds. If you were to come here at night, and I very much doubt you would be here at night, you might also take notice of the emergency room-slash-post office combination with twinkling neon lights. If you plan on staying here for very long, and once again, I doubt it, you should get to know the staff. The main attraction, and the reason that I am christening this journal, is that as much as I would like to believe otherwise, this place is weird but we will get into that more a bit later. What should be the most prominent feature of the town, the dam, is actually not in town. It is about 15 miles upstream, hidden on an unmarked road nestled in a forgotten corner of the park. This fortress spans the length of the river from hill to hill, and is a huge concrete wall with an office building made of brick and a stunningly massive art -deco window spanning the two floors of this structure neatly tucked off the side like an after thought. There are massive, brilliant flood lights spanning the entire length of the dam and stretching pretty far upstream. The concept is pretty simple, water goes in, spins turbines, and comes out on the other side, and creates the miracles that we all know and love: electricity. In addition, this place prevents flooding and is an all-around great place for serving the town as an early indicator for fires and other disasters. To make matters even more excruciatingly boring and downright fucking frustrating is that there no cell or internet connections to the dam or the cabin nearby that I get to call home. The formal answer I got back for this pile of fake manure is that the cell tower determined the population to “insignificant” to put a cell tower in this area, which I can almost buy. The sorry excuse for the internet is that the park service determines this spot too high of a national security threat and doesn’t want the risk of Russians destroying the place or something, this reasoning being absolutely shit if you ask me. In order to still get a tiny shred of civilization, I have to climb a stairway to heaven itself up a fire tower, on a hill to get just enough Wi-Fi to keep some semblance of sanity. And let me tell you, my ass is burning, my tounge is dry, and my lungs are one iota from exploding from the effort, and it is worth it. My first day here started off with my coworker, Sam, showing up two hours late for our designated meeting. He was dressed in bright white pants and a striped plunging v-neck tiger shirt and I would be lying if I didn’t say my first impression was trying to find a camera crew, because I was just certain that someone was trolling with me. He was average height, approximately 35, black hair, blue eyes, and very well groomed hair, and huge muscular arms and, all-in-all, gave off an energy that he thought he was a very pretty boy. We shake hands, before he cocks his head and give me a quizzical look, “Hey I noticed on your paperwork, is your name actually —“ I cut him off hard and fast, “Yes, it is. My parents were a bit, well, downright eccentric, alright? Don’t use that name, don’t even remember it alright. Do me a favor and call me Kate, Katie if you prefer.” He looks a bit taken aback and I feel a shred of remorse for the hostility, “Can do, may name is Samuel Carrington but Sam sounds more approachable if you wouldn’t mind using that.” We take a quick tour of the facility going into the offices, him quickly pointing out the landlines, emergency switches, exits, ect. He goes over the more technical aspects of the job, but then stops right before going into the turbine room, looks me dead in the eye with more seriousness than I thought was possible. “There are only a handful of rules you absolutely must follow: 1. Treat the equipment well, it is fucking EXPENSIVE and a lot of it is specialized. There is no hydroectric repair store just sitting around the corner. 2. Do not leave the site. I am dead serious about this one. Do. Not. Leave. The. Site. The only time you can leave is if you have someone competent here. I am only here two days a week as I have other obligations with the government, as you know the rest is up to you until we can get more people here. 3. Don‘t turn off the turbines for any reason. There are people downstream that stake their lives on the continual operation of this place. 4. If, for whatever reason, this place can not operate due to exceptional circumstances, or can no longer contain the river you must activate the emergency system. In addition to letting out an alert, it allows for people to know in advance to get to higher ground. This is critical, we are the only thing preventing everyone downstream a brutal watery demise.“ We head continue the turbine room talk about more dull operating procedures and then stop by a small office space. Sam stops and swings open the door which reveals all of a tiny efficiency apartment. “This is my room while I am here, if you need anything feel free to swing by.” He gives me a wink as I contemplate vomiting on his stupid gold tasseled shoes “We have a cabin for you since no other apartments exist and it was left furnished by my last guy.” We walk a short gravel path uphill to a small old cabin with a porch. He swings open the door, leaving very little to the imagination. Bed and mattress, fridge, stove, fill nearly all the available space. Right smack in the middle of the table sits a pissed off mostly hairless cat, that jumps off the table gives us a hiss for good measure and runs off into the woods. “Look, we can probably get rid of that if you want. I have no clue how it got in here, or hey, look at it this way! You already have a built in roommate! Feel free to decorate this place anyway you want, if you want I can go get us some food, and I can help you move in. Tomorrow I can go on a grocery run.” I open the cabinet to find an assortment of canned oddities left over from the last occupant. “No, that really won’t be necessary, but thank you so much for the offer.” I say trying to be nice. And then the thought occurred to me that this guy is being perhaps a bit too friendly. “Hey, is it alright if I have some, umm, well, overnight friends over? Very special female friends?” I asked trying to be subtle to see if that would discourage him. “Well douse me in gasoline and toss me a match. Are you a lesbian? That is so freaking awesome! I love chicks too, how cool is that? I shoulda known what with the flannel and pickup truck.” He says, totally oblivious to my growing acceptance that this guy was mostly harmless, if not a touch stupid. Sam cracks open the fridge, and rapidly shuts it back, as a slightly warm pungent smell swaggers into the room. “Yeah, definitely gonna get some real groceries tomorrow.” “Yep, that’s me, I’m a super lesbian.” I lie feeling like this statement may come back and haunt me. I turn on the kitchen facet as black water spills out. Sam looks at it a little concerned, “Might want to let that run for a bit, if it doesn’t clear soon, I’ll look into having it fixed. But look, seriously, if you need any help at all, don’t hesitate to call. This place is pretty spooky and it is easy to get hurt or in trouble out here. I’ve only been here about 3 months and my last coworker got pretty messed up. I liked him pretty well and it is an easy, if not boring job but it can take a toll.” Sam stepped out on the porch shooting a slightly nervous look at the woods before looking back at me. I waved him out, “It is alright, I’m fine, I can take care of myself. I will see you bright and early in the morning.” Sam nodded at me with me with a warm smile and made the short trek back to the dam. Night swiftly fell, and I was clutching my stomach off loading the contents into the porcelain alter for a cruel sadistic god. I hadn’t checked the expiration date too closely before downing a can of beef tounge I had found in the cabinets, which in retrospect was such a fuckingly stupid move on my part. I stepped back into the main living area to see just a swift glint of metal, before listening to the “Crash” as my widow was busted in and a hand swiftly unlocked the door from the inside. “Shit, this is real bad.” My brain thought. As my body tensed for a fight, in walked a figure in a green ranger uniform. The guy was 26-27, 5’11, light brown hair, green eyes, fair skin. He looked absolutely furious but satisfied. “I got you now, you jackass arsonist.” He says, grabbed me by the arms and tossing me on a stuffed chair hard. I feel a flash of pain on my ass as I land. “Damn, I realllly hope that wasn’t a needle.” I think as jump back up. Now, he looked back at me with with sheer bewilderment in his eyes. “OH shit, oh shit, I am gonna die.” I feel dread sneak into me as I scramble looking around. I take up a knife from the counter and plunge it into his hand. He lets out a yelp and given me a kick to my already twisted stomach. ”This is it.” I think as I land on the ground, and take the chance to grab his leg while it is still in the air. I push forward as he stumbles backwards. “Wait, but your not -“ he tries to slide out of the cabin but I pull down his socks and bite like a rabid dog, with all the energy I had. I taste a glint of metal. He starts really letting his lungs work now before coming to his senses again and grabs a fire extinguisher off the porch and hits me squarely with it. My vision swiftly faded to white after that. My next memory has me coming back to consciousness in a hospital room. I am under a blanket with cows on it, and look over to see a shitty thin blue curtain with yellow ducks on it. As I try to piece back my memory, I hear a commotion on the other side of the curtain. One female voice nearly splitting my ears says, “Are you a dumbass? You look like one to me dumbass. You obviously weren’t thinking, dumbass. God, what a dumbass.” Another male voice joins in, ”A girl, you beat a harmless girl senseless. And the poor thing was starting the job at the power plant. If you weren’t in already in the hospital, I’d put here, but to be fair that would make Dr. Sanders work harder, and unlike you I actually like the guy.” An older man wearing a white coat comes in about this time who I presume is the aforementioned individual, gives me the mouth zipping motion, a wink and walks to the other side of the curtain. “Well, she’s dead. You may as well see your handiwork.” The old doctors says. A younger voice pipes up, “B-B-But it was an accident. I didn’t mean-“ The curtain flies open to reveal two police officers, a short and slightly heavy male and a tall African American woman. Both looking ready to kill the park ranger in bed with his hand bandaged up. The young man looks at me absolutely horrified. I can’t help but let out a small snicker at the scene. The white haired doctor cracks up at the look of pure indignation I shoot park ranger. “She’ll be fine.” He says. The two officers looked a bit more at ease. Dr. Sander then goes on to say after sitting down on the edge of my bed, “You spooked us just a bit there, that one over there” he points to the park ranger, “sprayed you down with a fire extinguisher and caused some temporary asphyxiation.” The guy piped up, “I am so so so sorry. My name is Reuben, call me Ben. I’m so sorry, I had you mistaken for someone else. I’ll make this up to you. I really really fucked this up. Please don’t hate me,” he says. He was genuine, I fully believed that. “Glad you said, that Ben, because I’m pretty sure I need a door now. My name is Katie.” I went over and gave him a light smack to the back of the head. Dr. Sanders gave a puzzled look and picked my chart off the bed, “Wait, isn’t your name -,”. I stopped him, “Yep, it is, please for the love of all that is holy, just don’t.” After that, the female officer who’s name I learned was Talia, dropped me back off at the dam the next morning. Sam who had only the vaguest of ideas of what had gone on that night was filled in by Talia of the rest of the details and she quickly leaves afterwards leaving a cloud trail in the gravel. “Well,” Sam says “I guess this means your leaving.” “Are you kidding?” I say, “I only just got here.” Sam cracks a wide smile, “You’re in luck then, I forgot to show you something yesterday.” We go into the dam, down into the basement under the water level under the turbine rooms. I gasp as I look into the room, it was beautiful. There was a massive window looking out underwater. I could swear for the slightest second though that a fish swam by, displaying three eyes, and a sharp row of teeth. I knew in that moment that this river holds terrible and dark secrets and I had not even dipped toe in them. This is Katie, signing off, until next time.
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