Hesston 1090 haybine parts diagram
Why is my volume being weird (2 volume controls, 3-way toggle, 1 tone)
2023.06.05 01:53 BasicallyAnEnt Why is my volume being weird (2 volume controls, 3-way toggle, 1 tone)
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2023.06.05 01:23 No-Car-2485 How do I find a parts manual?
Long story short, we hit a deer in my 2017 Ford Fusion and decided not to bother with an insurance claim. I’m looking for a parts manual of some sort that will tell me which parts I need for the front bumper, along with a visual diagram of how to put it back together. We’ve been salvaging parts from junkyards and buying them online. I want to make sure I’m getting everything I need before I start taking everything apart. I’m new to this and not sure how to find anything like this online, I keep seeing owners manuals which is not exactly what I’m looking for. Links would be great but would also just welcome any information! Thank you!
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2023.06.05 00:10 spunchy M&B Lecture 5: The Central Bank as a Clearinghouse
| || |For our schedule and links to other discussions, see the Money and Banking 2023 master post. submitted by spunchy to moneyview [link] [comments]
This is the discussion thread for Economics of Money and Banking Lecture 5: The Central Bank as a Clearinghouse
The lecture begins our discussion of banking as a payments system. We start with the interconnectedness of bank balance sheets that allow the payment system to operate smoothly. The central bank helps knit the payment system together to approximate the behavior of one big bank. We cover correspondent banking and central bank cooperation.
Part 1: FT: Martin Wolf on QE3
As the press release of the open market committee stated: “If the outlook for the labor market does not improve substantially, the Committee will continue its purchases of agency mortgage-backed securities, undertake additional asset purchases, and employ its other policy tools as appropriate until such improvement is achieved in a context of price stability.” This is also “consistent with its statutory mandate”, to foster “maximum employment and price stability”. —Bernanke makes a historic choice
How should we understand QE3? The Fed promises to buy MBS, and possibly other assets, at a fixed and steady pace until employment improves. The immediate effect is to absorb such assets from elsewhere in the financial system. This is, in the first instance, a boost to the liquidity of these securities: when a big-time buyer is out there, it will be easier to sell, and knowing that a big-time buyer will continue to be out there, others will be more likely to buy. — QE3 The Money View
I've added "Builders" to the balance sheet from the blog post to show where the money goes and where the houses come from:
At the highest level, finally, does QE3 get at what is keeping aggregate demand down? If the problem remains, still, overindebted households unwilling to increase their demand for newly produced goods and services, then this liquidity-providing operation will have very little effect. If there is too much debt out there, and it is to be reduced, someone will have to write that debt down against equity. This is not a feature of QE3 as announced. — QE3 The Money View
The goal was to return to nominal GDP trend, but we were falling further behind.
Part 2: One Big Bank
The payments system functions as if
it were operating on the balance sheet of one big bank. Everyone can pay each other using bank deposits as if all bank deposits were equivalent.
The IMF works more like a "pure money" one-big-bank system. Its balance sheet does not expand or contract as countries make payments to one another.
In a "pure money" one-big-bank system, the quantity of money (deposits) doesn't change. Depositors pay each other by assignment
, which appears as novation
on the balance sheet of the bank: one deposit account takes on liabilities previously held by another:
The Fed works more like a credit system. A "pure credit" one-big-bank system has no reserves. Instead, surplus agents have deposits at the bank, which they hold as assets. Deficit agents have "overdrafts" at the bank, which are their liabilities. https://preview.redd.it/uk0qf9bco24b1.png?width=268&format=png&auto=webp&s=d832d2aaddc01d60a136d952e481eee72e00d3b3
Depositors make payments through the bank. Below is the matrix from the lecture that shows whether the bank's balance sheet expands, contracts, or stays the same size. Payers are on the vertical axis. Payees are on the horizontal axis. https://preview.redd.it/p1wimxoeo24b1.png?width=125&format=png&auto=webp&s=11760b09ddf1761033e5fdbbe923a48d1a7db085
Surplus agents pay each other by assigning deposits. Deficit agents pay each other by novating overdrafts. Deficit agents pay surplus agents by issuance, intermediated by the bank. Surplus agents pay deficit agents by set off, again intermediated by the bank.
This matrix assumes that the bank's balance sheet expands only when necessary. It shrinks whenever possible. Otherwise, everybody could make all payments by issuance, and balance sheets would only ever expand. The Money Stock
In a footnote to the lecture notes, Perry points out that the elasticity of credit makes it hard to define the size of the money stock.
Note in passing that this way of thinking about the payments system raises deep questions about how properly to measure the money supply.
He provides three options.
- The sum of deposits.
- The sum of deposits minus overdrafts.
- The sum of deposits plus credit limits (the "minus" is a typo in the notes).
The first option is closest to how people usually think about the money supply. But in a world with the possibility for overdrafts, it doesn't measure agents' spending potential.
The second option also doesn't measure people's overall purchasing power. If you're in a pure credit system, deposits and overdrafts exactly net out to zero, but we know
there's purchasing power in the system.
The third option reflects the idea that there's more gross
purchasing power when people have higher credit limits. But credit limits don't appear on anyone's balance sheet. How do we measure them?
The balance sheets tell the same story regardless of how you define or measure the money stock.
Part 3: Multiple Banks, a challenge
In the real world, the challenge is to knit multiple bank balance sheets together into a single payment system. When deposits move through the banking system, there is a notional flow of reserves behind the scenes. https://preview.redd.it/5fz7oyp1p24b1.png?width=558&format=png&auto=webp&s=f6baed3bb7fa55e9b9f3daa5da2c2d80a34178c9
Notice that reserves move (assignment) along with the deposits (novation). In quadruple-entry accounting, this is a transfer of portfolio
. Bank A's balance sheet contracts on both sides while Bank B's balance sheet expandson both sides. In the example above, the consolidated balance sheet of the banking system as a whole remains the same size.
Unlike with one big bank, the reserves matter.
The deficit bank can run out of reserves and come up against the settlement constraint. There's more discipline than in a system with one big bank.
Banks run the payments system by expanding and contracting their balance sheets on both sides. The net worth of neither the individual banks nor the banking system as a whole changes as depositors make payments to each other.
If banks refused to run the payment system, it would force depositors to withdraw cash whenever they wanted to make payments.
See the below set of balance sheets. https://preview.redd.it/x1tai1fzo24b1.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=0e320bcd0a430e9035a0a8a89e8cee2d82bfa465
There are two scenarios here: A and B. Each is a different way for Depositor α at Bank A to pay Depositor γ at Bank B. Both start and end with the same balance-sheet positions.
Scenario A has 5 steps:
- A1: Bank A exchanges reserves for cash. This is a refinance operation with the central bank's balance sheet (not shown).
- A2: Depositor α withdraws the cash. This is an asset disintermediation.
- A3: α pays the cash to γ in payment by assignment.
- A4: γ deposits the cash into Bank B, which is an asset intermediation.
- A5: Bank B exchanges the cash back into reserves (deposits at the central bank).
The payment takes place outside the banking system. Whenever depositors are making payments in this way, the reserves are just gone from the system.
It's more convenient for the banks to send the payment directly to the other bank instead of having depositors withdraw their money. This is scenario B.
Making payments directly through account balances reduces the need for depositors to withdraw cash. It allows banks to economize on reserves. Offering demand deposits, therefore, basically forces banks to run the payments system.
When appropriate, we can treat bank deposits as outside asset for our layer of the hierarchy simply by ignoring the balance sheets of the banks.
Part 4: Reading: Charles F. Dunbar
The reading for this Wednesday is a chapter by Charles Dunbar about how the United States checking system worked in the late 19th century before we had a central bank.
Below is a simple representation of payment by check between depositors at two banks at the same level of the hierarchy. https://preview.redd.it/0ozi6korp24b1.png?width=901&format=png&auto=webp&s=3e879bf2b0a8134ccee9ecef03083a8adbfd2c0e
Part 5: Correspondent banking, bilateral balances
A check is an order to pay. Each bank receives orders to pay throughout the day and then nets them out. https://preview.redd.it/oblni8wup24b1.png?width=427&format=png&auto=webp&s=d9ad8403194efcbec07de0faf85591656125fb98
After they clear by netting out offsetting promises to pay, the banks could settle the difference by paying in reserves (transfer of portfolio). But it can be more convenient for the banks to have deposit accounts with each other. These are called correspondent balances.
There are two ways to resolve a payment from a bank A customer to a payment to a bank B customer using correspondent balances:
- A liability disintermediation that contracts A's balance sheet.
- A liability intermediation that expands B's balance sheet.
In practice, there's a hierarchy of banks, and the small country banks will be the ones that hold deposit balances in the bigger city banks. The action will happen on the big bank's balance sheet.
- Here's Perry's source on bankers' balances by Leonard Lyon Watkins: Bankers' Balances
Part 6: Correspondent banking, system network
Here's a diagram similar to the one Mehrling draws on the board. Money-center Banks A and B have correspondent accounts at New York Bank C. Depositors α and β's banks have correspondent accounts at money-center Bank A. γ's bank has a correspondent account at Bank C, and λ's bank has a correspondent account at Bank B. https://preview.redd.it/r3h8b2d5q24b1.png?width=960&format=png&auto=webp&s=8bab35d6ea48ec0b63c5cf48cee5105f5d5e7630
There are multiple layers of the correspondent-banking hierarchy. The idea is to economize on reserves. Do as much netting as possible so reserves don't have to flow. Use credit as much as possible so reserves don't have to flow.
Here's what it looks like (notionally) for α to pay λ. https://preview.redd.it/vvp29757q24b1.png?width=1065&format=png&auto=webp&s=5ade9969f7e31d9af86dadbf688f4ceca1a69c5b
I've arranged the balance sheets so you can see the hierarchy. Each balance sheet uses as reserves deposits in the bank above it.
This flow of reserves is only "notional" because it might be offset with a payment going in the opposite direction. In that case, no reserves will actually flow.
Now imagine that λ has its correspondent account directly at money-center bank B. When α to pays λ, there is a contraction of deposits at an intermediate layer of the hierarchy. https://preview.redd.it/wjjy913aq24b1.png?width=1058&format=png&auto=webp&s=381d71e0fda9255a354d106f0ecbfe8bcc0a5705
From the perspective of α and λ, it's all the same.
Note that, since the correspondent system is a credit system, we are not constrained by the quantity of gold, only by the various bi-lateral credit limits.—Lecture Notes
The accumulation of orders to pay throughout the day is not
constrained by reserves. Only the final settlement (after netting) is reserve-constrained.
Part 7: Clearinghouse, normal operations
Banks cooperating to form a clearinghouse is an example of the emergence of hierarchy. The banks are installing a layer of the hierarchy above themselves for the purpose of providing elasticity. That elasticity can then propagate further down the hierarchy.
Here are some simple balance sheets showing the New York Clearinghouse Association. https://preview.redd.it/pez4wldeq24b1.png?width=557&format=png&auto=webp&s=8cad3a85eb4135191e20125e14ea08e75774f79d
Clearinghouse certificates are notes that stand in for gold. They're not just promises to pay gold. Each note corresponds to gold that's actually held in reserve.
All promised payments are mutual obligations of members of the clearinghouse. The credit of the aggregate is better than the credit of any individual bank.
The clearinghouse is a credit system during the day but a money system when settling at the end of the day.
If a member bank is a net debtor at the end of the day, it has to choose from the following options:
- Pay with clearinghouse certificates.
- Borrow from another member.
The second option is what we call a money market. The money market is the market where banks borrow reserves from each other short-term to meet payments deficits. In addition to facilitating the payments system, the money market can also fund longer-term positions that need to be continually rolled over. We'll talk about this more in future lectures.
Here's a book about the history of clearinghouses that Merhling recommends.
Part 8: Clearinghouse, private lender of last resort
In times of stress, when member banks collectively lack sufficient reserves, the members can borrow from the clearinghouse itself. The clearinghouse funds the loan by issuing a clearinghouse loan certificate. Whereas the clearinghouse certificate is directly backed by gold, the clearinghouse loan certificate is backed by the loan instead.
The Clearinghouse is a private
lender of last resort.
Clearinghouse loan certificates are like banknotes, but they're issued against member loans rather than the special 2% government bonds. Before 1907, it wasn't clear that they were legal.
Sometimes, it was hard for the clearinghouse to get the loan certificates back because they paid so well.
Here's a paper by the same author as the above book that describes clearinghouse loan certificates in more detail.
Part 9: Central Bank Clearing
Central banking can be understood as nothing more than one step beyond the clearinghouse, a kind of regularization and strengthening of the clearinghouse system that goes the extra step of obliterating the difference between clearinghouse certificates and clearinghouse loan certificates.—Lecture Notes
In the above set of balance sheets, "money" is an umbrella term for reserves (deposits) and Federal Reserve Notes. It shows that the Fed can support members by lending to them through the discount window (not the same thing as discounting) or by buying assets from their balance sheets (more analogous to discounting).
Today, there are two clearing systems: one public (Fedwire) and one private (CHIPS). CHIPS is the modern version of the NYCA. CHIPS clears first, and then everything settles on Fedwire.
Part 10: Central Bank Cooperation
If someone above you in the hierarchy needs to be paid in reserves (external drain), your choice is to pay up or to default (suspend payments). If someone below you in the hierarchy needs to be paid (internal drain), your liabilities are
their reserves. You can expand your balance sheet. No problem.
When you're a central bank and you run out of gold, you suspend specie payments. That's suspending the exchange rate fixed with gold. It suspends the promise that you will maintain the mint par with gold.
Instead of suspending payments, it's possible for all the central banks to expand their balance sheets at the same time when experiencing stress. It's like an international clearinghouse adding elasticity at the top of the system.
In 2012, the five central banks that matter were all expanding their balance sheets together: Fed, ECB, BoE, SNB, and BoJ. Today, Mehrling adds the Bank of Canada to that list and calls them as a group the C6, with the C standing for "central bank."
Please post any questions and comments below. We will have a one-hour live discussion
of Lecture 5 and Lecture 6 on Monday, June 5th, at 2:00pm EDT.
2023.06.04 23:35 klacklacklack Shear strength of dual lock
I'm building a portable synthesizer & pedal setup. I want to secure my gear safely on there so that if put into a hard case it'll withstand airport baggage handling. My heaviest item is a sythesizer that weighs in at about 1.5 kg/3.3 lbs.
I don't really trust velcro or dual lock to hold this thing in place in case its dropped. Hence I'm thinking about putting the dual lock/velcro not on the bottom on the device but onto the sides,
hoping that the velcro or dual lock connection withstands shear forces better than forces pulling the connection apart perpendicular to the board.
However, looking at dual lock, the "mushrooms" on there are forming a pretty regular grid which makes me doubt if dual lock really is
good at withstanding forces parallel to the board. Assuming that people on here know about dual lock - can you tell me how well dual lock connections withstand shear forces?
PS: here's the mounting idea for the heavier components, comments welcome: On the board side, one counter part (the left in my crude diagram) would be fixed, the other one would be a hinge that would allow easy removal of the pedal/synth (one of my design requirements).
mounted ('#' = velcro or dual lock) +--+ +------------------+ ## pedal/synth ## ## ## ##+------------------+## +---+--+------------------------O----------+ board hinge up +------------------------------------------+ unmount ('#' = velcro or dual lock) +--+ +------------------+ ## pedal/synth # ## # ##+------------------+# ##### +---+--+------------------------O======----+ board hinge down +------------------------------------------+
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2023.06.04 21:26 life-finds-a-way New Subreddit Collection: DEIA - Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility
I have created a new community collection of posts that focuses on DEIA (Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, Accessibility) issues in our field. It is a snapshot of the issues we face as scientists, analysts, examiners, researchers, educators, students, and professionals and is subject to change as the challenges we face change.
The collection link is here
and will be populated as posts fitting its scope come in. As with all reddit collections, please view on a web browser for functionality.
What are the elements of DEIA?
- The presence of variety in a group. Historically, diversity has been narrowed to mean race/ethnicity and sex/gender in practice, but it encompasses all the facets of us that make us unique from one another. For reference, see this diagram. (Source)
- Diversity is not something that can be created. It is something that is supported or encouraged through an environment that makes people feel like they belong and are productively contributing to the community's mission or well-being.
- The state or concept of recognizing that communities, groups, and cohorts do not all start from the same place with the same resources for success and thereby providing everyone with the tools they need for their situation or status in society, group, or community.
- Equity differs from equality in that equality gives everyone the same tools, which might not be enough to recover from disadvantages or different starting positions in society or in the organization.
- An environment and commitment to the recognition, acknowledgement, respect, representation, and acceptance of the diversity in a group or community. This environment fosters a genuine sense of belonging and encourages sustained diversity.
- Inclusion is not simply attendance or presence in a group or community. It requires engagement with the well-being of a group or community through leadership positions, decision-making, research, community management, etc.
- Barrier-free design, standards, systems, processes, and environments to provide all individuals, regardless of ability, identity or situation, an effective opportunity to take part in, use and enjoy the benefits of: programs, services, activities, communication, facilities, electronic/information technology, and opportunities.
- Accessibility often encompasses physical/space barriers but it also includes things like readability, cost, availability, time allotment, and communication.
Adapted from: https://www.aafs.org/diversity-outreach-committee While DEIA has become the center of recent political discourse in the US and other places, the issues are real and they exist in our field. We owe it to everyone to examine the source of data gaps in research, identify any possible barriers to the data collection, examine who should collect that data and how it should be collected so that the community or group doesn't feel objectified for the sake of science, provide updates to outdated terms/concept in our disciplines, and foster an environment where all our contributions are productive and appreciated.
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2023.06.04 21:21 Prophet_Rykar [WP] Humanity's Spirit
In the late 23rd century, the skies darkened with the arrival of the Nokrians. A reptilian race known throughout the galaxies as conquerors, destroyers of civilizations, and relentless expansionists. The first contact had a single, chilling message. Surrender or be eradicated. Humanity spread across Earth, Mars, the belt, and the solar system's farthest reaches bristled at the ultimatum. A united response was sent back. "We are the children of the Earth. We do not surrender!" And so the war for Earth began. The Nokrians had underestimated humanity, viewing them as a young race scattered, technologically inferior. The aliens had crushed such civilizations before. But humankind was different. Beneath the diverse flags, languages, and planets, the fire of unity roared. Human technology, while less advanced, was innovative.
Adaptive tactics and strategies changed quickly and unpredictably. The first defining battle took place in the inner belt of Jupiter. Earth's combined fleet clashed with the Nokrian Armada. The alien cruisers dwarfed Earth's vessels, and their plasma weapons tore through our hulls. The Nokrians watched as dozens of human ships turned to stardust, confident in their victory. But humanity had a secret weapon. Its spirit. The spirit dared to dream, innovate, and resist against all odds. And amid that bloody battle, it shone brightly. Following a hasty, desperate plan, the remaining human fleet utilized Jupiter's powerful magnetic field to create a slingshot effect, hurtling smaller ships with tremendous speed toward the Nokrian Armada. The Nokrian Shields, designed to absorb direct High energy attacks, could not adapt to the bombardment of these human missiles. The loss they faced was unexpected and disheartening. The mighty alien Armada was forced to retreat, leaving the humans to celebrate their first victory. That day, the message of humanity echoed across the solar system. "We do not surrender."
On the Nokrian's homeworld, Supreme Warlord K'rul watched in disbelief as reports streamed in. "So you're telling me we lost our greatest superweapon because humans rammed a flagship into it?" The room fell into an uneasy silence. Humans were meant to be weak and insignificant. Yet they had just dealt the Nokrians a heavy blow. Despite this unexpected setback, the Nokrians remained disdainful of humanity. They saw this victory as a fluke, a lucky shot. Commander Xok'rath received an order from the Nokrian High Command as the war entered its second year. An all-out assault on Earth aimed to crush human resistance once and for all. Closing his eyes, he remembered a phrase from an ancient human text. "The calm before the storm." The storm was indeed coming, but who would prevail in its wake was a story yet to be told. With a final look at Earth, he ordered his Armada to advance, leaving the future of humanity and nutrients hanging in the balance. A cliff on the horizon of a story yet to unfold.
Operation Thunderbolt. "I must admit humans come up with interesting names," Commander Xok'rath muttered. Staring at the holographic plans of an earth-based counter-strike against his Armada. He found it difficult to understand how a young and fragile race could put up such a fight. His second in command, Virox, watched the hologram with narrowed eyes. "Commander, have you noticed? These humans fight differently compared to the other races we've conquered. They're more... reckless." "Yes," Xok'rath replied, a hint of curiosity in his voice. "They seem to have a remarkable capacity for taking risks and performing under extreme stress. There's a term they use" "Adrenaline." Virox tilted his head. "Adrenaline?" "Yes," Xok'rath said. Gesturing at a display, an image of a human anatomy diagram appeared, highlighting the adrenal glands. "It's a hormone triggered by stress or danger significantly enhancing their physical abilities. It allows them to perform feats that seem impossible." "Like flying their ships directly into our Armada," Virox murmured, understanding dawning in his eyes. "Yes," Xok'rath nodded. "Like that." Their discussion was interrupted by the ship's automated alarm. Operation Thunderbolt had begun.
Reports started pouring in, and Earth's smaller but highly maneuverable attack force began strafing runs on the Nokrian fleet. From Earth's surface, missiles arced, their brilliant trails illuminating the dark void. Nokrian shield generators sparked and faltered under the sheer onslaught. The human ships danced among the Nokrian Armada. "Incoming! Brace for impact!" Xok'rath's command echoed through the command ship as one of the earth missiles found its target. The ship shook violently, the powerful shield failling under the human's relentless bombardment. "Damage report!" Xok'rath demanded, clutching onto the armrest of his command chair. His scales bristled with tension. "Shields down to 17%; we have hull breaches in sectors 7, 9, and 12." A junior officer reported, panic evident in his usually steady voice. "Initiate evasive maneuvers and get those shields back online!" Zok'rath ordered, his mind racing. No enemy had ever breached a Nokrian command ship's shield. Yet, here were the humans achieving the impossible again.
Meanwhile, on Earth, General Maya Serrano watched as Operation Thunderbolt unfolded. Despite the high stakes, she couldn't suppress a small smile. They were showing these arrogant aliens the true might of humanity. Serrano was a seasoned veteran, having served in the Solar Defence Force for three decades. She'd fought against pirates and led exploratory missions into unknown regions of space, and now she was helping to defend humanity against an alien invasion. Her strategic mind was behind Operation Thunderbolt, a daring high-risk counteroffensive designed to exploit the Nokrians' overconfidence. Back on the Nokrian command ship, the situation was dire. The shields were failing. Casualties were mounting, and to Xok'rath's disbelief, the human force showed no signs of relenting. Instead, their attacks became fiercer, their maneuvers more daring. Suddenly an urgent message flashed on the command screen. It was from the Nokrian Supreme Warlord K'rul himself. His statement was brief and to the point. "Fall back to high orbit," "Regroup," "We will not be defeated." Xok'rath stared at the message, his mind swirling with questions. "Fallback?" "Regroup?" These were terms not often used in Nokrian warfare. He looked back at the holographic display of Earth, its blue and green hues seeming to pulse defiantly. "Commander, your orders?" Virox asked, his eyes reflecting the unease rippling through the command ship. Xok'rath took a deep breath. A newfound respect for humanity hardened his resolve. "We follow the warlord's orders, full retreat to high orbit." "But make no mistake, Virox, this is far from over. We've awoken a giant, and we must brace for its wrath," said Xok'rath. As the Nokrian Armada began retreating, the humans watched from their homeworld, ships, and colonies. They had won this round. Their defiance, unity, and sheer audacity had pushed back the invaders. If only for a while... But they knew this was not the end; the war was far from over. The Nokrians would return more determined, more desperate. Humanity would have to be ready, for they were the children of Earth, and they would not surrender.
The lights flickered in the makeshift lab as a beacon of hope emerged. On a remote outpost on Titan, Doctor Elena Petrova, humanity's leading quantum physicist, made a breakthrough. A radical new technology project, Quantum Lattice, is an adaptive energy shield that could neutralize the Nokrian's plasma weapons. News of the breakthrough spread like wildfire, the anticipation mixed with caution; after all, the security was untested in actual combat. They needed to be more unified on the other side of the war line. In the Nokrian High Command, disagreement festered; some commanders like Xok'rath argued for a more cautious approach acknowledging the human's unpredictability. Others, like the fiery Z'tran, scorned such caution advocating for overwhelming direct force. Back on Earth, another development was taking shape. Lieutenant Isamu Takashi, one of the few survivors of the battle of Jupiter, was chosen for a mission most deemed suicidal. Utilizing his combat experience, survival skills, and the new adaptive camouflage suit. Isamu was to infiltrate the Nokrian mothership, gather intelligence, and, if possible, sabotage their operations. Leaving behind a tearful goodbye to his family. Isamu steeled himself for the task ahead. He was not just a soldier but a symbol of human determination.
Meanwhile, Project Quantum Lattice was fast-tracked for field deployment. The prototype was to be installed on the USS Vengeance, a newly commissioned cruiser. Captain Amina N'dour, an experienced and unyielding officer, was given the helm. Her task was twofold: test the shield in battle and buy enough time for Isamu to complete his mission. The USS Vengeance embarked on its maiden voyage equipped with untested technology.
The moral of the human forces was... Palpable. On the Nokrian side, tension mounted as descent grew. The war was about to take an unexpected turn. Onboard the Nokrian mothership, Commander Xok'rath studied the report of increased activity among the human forces. A chill ran down his spine; he felt the winds of change, a shiver of uncertainty. He turned to his Second-in-Command, Virox. "Prepare the fleet for an imminent attack and enhance security on our ship. I have a feeling... the humans are up to something." And thus, the stage was set the pieces were moving. As the USS Vengeance ventured into the dark abyss, Isamu descended onto the alien ship in his stealth shuttle. The entire solar system held its breath. Unbeknownst to them, they were on the brink of a new chapter in the war for Earth. A turning point was on the horizon, and with it, the tides of war were about to change.
Deep within the heart of the Nokrian mothership. Lieutenant Isamu Takashi navigated the labyrinthine corridors, and the calm hum of alien technology resonated in the walls. Contrasting starkly with the pounding heartbeat echoing in his ears. Invisible under the cloak of the adaptive camouflage suit, he slipped past patrols, moving like a phantom. His objective was clear, gather intel on the Nokrian's capabilities, identify weaknesses, and, if possible, sow chaos within their ranks. But first, he had to reach the core command center.
Meanwhile, far from the silent tension of the alien vessel, the USS Vengeance found itself in the throes of battle. The Nokrian vanguard had descended upon them like a swarm of metallic hornets, but humanity had its own sting. "Activate the Quantum Lattice!" Captain Amina N'dour ordered. A shimmering energy net bloomed around the ship absorbing the volley of plasma beams from the Nokrian fighters. The cruiser seemed to glow in a lattice of light before the glow subsided, leaving the USS Vengeance unscathed. In the silence that followed, a cheer erupted on the bridge; The Quantum Lattice worked. Then, on the Nokrian mothership, Z'tran, a high-ranking commander known for his aggression, stormed into the war room.
Reports of the failed attack on the human ship had just arrived. Z'tran blamed Xok'rath for the failures, his words slicing through the tense air. "Your caution has cost us, Xok'rath. These humans... they are not as weak as you believed." A heated argument ensued, voices echoing through the chamber. Z'tran's accusations held weight among those frustrated with the human resistance. The room split, tension escalating until Z'tran, by force of numbers, wrestled control of the Armada. His first order was a resonating call for the destruction of the Earth. During the power struggle, Isamu found himself at the heart of the command center. He had gathered precious intel, learning about Z'tran's intended all-out assault. Unfortunately, he transmitted the information to Earth before an alarm blared around him. His cover was blown, and his heart pounded in his chest as he found himself surrounded and trapped in the center of the enemy hub. His eyes darted, calculating escape routes, but it was too late. The Nokrians closed in; their alien faces were grim, and weapons were drawn. Back on Earth, as the data from Isamu started streaming in, they also received his final message. "I've been compromised; proceed without me..." The transmission cut out abruptly, leaving a haunting silence in the command center with the enemy closing in. Isamu steeled himself; he was cornered, outgunned. His chances looked grim, but he was a symbol of humanity, and he was not going down without a fight. And thus, the climax of the War for Earth began with a lone spy's fate and humanity's future hanging in the balance.
The alien corridors were bathed in a harsh red light, the alarm blaring relentlessly. Lieutenant Isamu Takashi, cornered and outnumbered, faced the approaching Nokrians with a defiant glare. He knew he wouldn't walk away from this fight. His hand found the tiny remote in his pocket. A last resort. A beacon to call down hellfire upon his position. He pressed the button. An explosive blaze erupted from Isamu's location, cascading through the Nokrian mothership. Isamu's final act, a daring sacrifice, destabilized a significant part of the alien Armada. It was a tragic but necessary act that the human fleet used to their advantage. On Earth, his sacrifice echoed through the ranks. Isamu's bravery was a catalyst, igniting a resolve deeper than any battle plan. As Z'tran's all-out assault descended upon Earth, the planet's defenses were pushed to their limit. But inspired by Isamu, the humans held their ground. The Quantum Lattice technology fends off the relentless onslaught. "Remember Isamu!" Became a rallying cry that surged through the human ranks. Each ship fought with a tenacity that was a testament to their fallen comrade. The Nokrian Armada, vast, began to falter before the stubborn human resistance. And then Earth's forces unleashed their trump card. Within the bowels of these human ships, engineers and scientists worked relentlessly. Exploiting the data gathered by Isamu. They discovered a critical flaw in the Nokrian shield system. A resonant frequency that could disrupt their energy matrix. Timing their attacks to the millisecond, they fired burst after burst. At this frequency, the Nokrian Shields flickered and, with a final, resounding blast, failed. The Armada was left exposed and vulnerable. Humanity pushed, and the Nokrian forces began to crumble. The victory was not without cost. Wreckage of both Human and Nokrian ships littered the battlefield. The Earth, though protected, was scarred by the relentless bombardment. But amidst the destruction, humanity stood tall. They had faced annihilation and emerged victorious. Both races were left to pick up the pieces in the aftermath of the war. On Earth, a Monument was erected in Isamu's memory, a testament to the spirit of humanity. In the Nokrian home world, Z'tran's recklessness was held responsible for their defeat, leading to a shift in power. As the dust settled, the galaxy watched in awe. A species they had considered insignificant had bested the most fearsome conquerors known. Their story was one of resilience, bravery, and unity. However, with the end of the war came new challenges. The knowledge of humanity's existence had reached far corners of the galaxy. Allies and enemies alike turned their attention to the small blue planet and its colonies, intrigued and wary. But Earth stood ready. The war for Earth had changed, unified, and strengthened them. No matter what the future holds, one thing is sure. Humanity would face it head-on, as they always had. Because they are the children of Earth! And they do not surrender!
submitted by Prophet_Rykar
to humansarespaceorcs [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 20:56 epilamun What part is this?
| || |
Apologies in advance for the dumb question, I'm not sure which diagram to look at for the BMW 318i (N43B20) to find the answer to this, but this part highlighted in the picture is rotten. Could you advise me as to what part this is and how tough it is to replace? It is located on the rear of the car. submitted by epilamun to MechanicAdvice [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 20:33 SteelMagnolia81 ESS103 (This summer semester) -- To drop or not to drop?
So I'm currently taking ESS103... I'm a 4th year student and I was originally excited to be able to complete a breadth 5 course. Unfortunately, things have not been going to plan...
The course is very heavy on reading, 6 hours per week for chapter readings and then a couple hours of watching lecture(s). The quizzes are structured to answer 60 questions in 60 minutes (some of the questions are multi-part/complete the diagram type). The mid-term was structured the same, at 120 questions in 120 minutes. On both the quizzes and mid-term, there have been diagrams that don't load properly or are completely illegible.
A number of my peers have complained and dropped the class already. However, I've been thinking about making this course a CR on my transcript, but now I'm not even sure if it's worth the energy and risk of failing.
If anyone has or is taking this course (with Prof. Tutty), your input is greatly appreciated.
submitted by SteelMagnolia81
to UofT [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 20:29 dnew My Firmament Critique (heavy spoilers for all Cyan games)
Before I dump on the game, let me mention a few of the places that were actually clever:
- The bit with Camelus where you had to raise the bridge and shoot into it from below.
- Figuring out there was a path under the bridge that the ice block blocked.
- Figuring out that you could get up on the ice block from the other end of the crane.
I found the game to be disappointing and frustrating, all down to three reasons:
- The lack of interaction modes. Everything is a doorknob.
- The lack of characters, plot, conflict, and motivation.
- An inability to suspend disbelief, made even more absurd by the ending.
Let's look at these, along with contrasting to early Cyan games, and notice how combining all three together makes for a poor experience.
Essentially, the only mode of interaction available is turning a knob. While this is not necessarily a game killer (Myst, for example, only has clicking something) in Firmament it is completely treated as turning a knob. That is, every time you use the adjunct, you're interacting with a manufactured bit of machinery to control power to one or the other function of what you're connecting to. This leads to a sparse range of puzzles that can be included, essentially none of which progress the narrative. And it leads to the requirement for a technical instruction manual at the start of the game.
There's no "let the water out of the chest then close the knob again so it'll float when you fill the pool." There's no compass rose or turning mirrors. There's no locks to find the combination to (fortunately, given the plot). There's no sorting of singing monkeys. There's no tempting of birds with seed pods. There's no catching of Squees. There's no summoning of Wharks. The steam generator and pipes to fill the Voltaic airship actually work logically, and there's a reason they're puzzling, unlike the steam pipes in Curievale. (I had to actually look up which world the steam pipes were in just now, which shows you how well-integrated that puzzle is.) Also, each puzzle is independent of all the others; there's no foreshadowing of what you need to know, nor cleverness of relating one puzzle to another, as was common all through Exile for example.
Almost all the puzzles (including the most frustrating) involve trying to find the next doorknob to turn; or, having found it, trying to figure out how to reach it with the one and only tool available. Occasionally there's the "let's see if I can find the hidden pathway." Almost none of them involve figuring something out based on the environment or the world building. When stuck, I found myself walking around with the adjunct out looking for some hidden doorknob to light up, or wandering into unobvious corners and walking around the edge of the playable area seeing if I missed a hidden pathway. This is compounded by the huge amount of nonsensical consistency-busting designs. (Watch any first-time playthrough and you'll see the player running all over the place looking for the next clue.)
Granted, once you figured out the solution, it was often clear in hindsight what you were supposed to have been doing.
- You could realize the conservatory is symmetrical and has rubble blocking the way so you need to climb across the planters.
- You could figure out that there were controls under the sulfur you couldn't see the first time by looking at the diagram, if you could figure out what the diagram was saying without extensive exploring to start with.
- You could figure out that the goal in the battery field was to connect the one wire to the other (and not stringing batteries from the outside inwards) once you realize there's exactly two wires leading out from the lake and the error is "no connection".
- You could figure out what order the sockets get concatenated in by looking at their orientations. (Granted, they tried to teach you that during "verification.")
- Once you've drained the first reservoir, it becomes clear the odd structures sticking up were walkways.
- Often you progress a ways through a puzzle and then you can see the exit.
The lack of characters, living people, conflict, narrative, etc also left the game feeling lacking. There's nobody you can interact with, almost no direction is provided as to what you should do (and no, just saying "start the Embrace" doesn't help given you have no memory of what that means), and no motivation for doing it other than some ghost tells you. The real reason you work at it is you know you're playing a game. The fact that the world is terribly inconsistent with the story, and the mentor wants you to do things she won't reveal, just compounds the problem.
- One of the first things she tells you is she'll lie to you, which kind of gave away the "you are Turner" ending.
- You're the only person alive/awake, you're vital to the completion of the project, and your mentor can tell you what to do, but she doesn't.
- In Myst, Riven, Exile, you're given ongoing plot, and you know your motivation from the start, and why there's nobody helping you.
- The ending is an unsatisfying info dump. The beginning is the same. There really wasn't a sense of accomplishment, especially since "Hey, you got to the end, no go away, everything else is automated."
The entire time I was playing, I was saying to myself "Why would this be like this?" It made the entire experience tremendously gamey. Myst and Riven didn't make you think "why would anyone do this?" Exile and Portal both had reasons for being full of puzzles, as well as a motivation for your opponent to be setting up the puzzles and
for making them solvable. But Firmament should have been 10x as easy to navigate, except that wouldn't make a good game, so artificial barriers that make no sense are set in your way. This, for me, destroyed the suspension of disbelief. Especially when the ending reveals that even the things you might have thought were accidental were designed that way. Even the constructed places were designed like puzzles rather than somewhere you want your workers to be effective at working.
- Why would your mentor set things up that you needed to work so hard to make happen what she wanted?
- Why are there even locks on the doors, given only keepers and crew are there?
- Why would any giant door only have a doorknob on one side, especially when there are other doors you can enter?
- Why wouldn't there be a path around the skiff engine so you could couple either side?
- Why is there even a cargo skiff stuck to the side of a building that has stairs at the top and bottom of its range? That's like making a handicap elevator that opens onto a staircase landing. What are you moving on the skiff?
- Why would you install steam pipes zig-zagging all over under the water?
- Why would you install the gangways zig-zagging all over under the water?
- Why would you install steam valves that block the path when turned on? Why not turn that bit so they stick out over space?
- What does turning on the steam even do, other than clearing the way to the spire? It's not powering anything at the exit. Why are the pipes and heaters even there except to make a puzzle?
- Why do the electric heaters need steam power?
- Why do pressurized steam pipes glow green, except to make the puzzle possible? Why are electric lights shining out from inside the steam pipes?
- Why wouldn't you provide all the modes of running the crane on top of the crane? Why can't you raise the hook from on top of the crane?
- How is Juleston the only place that needs special electricity? Where do the other realms get their electricity that this realm couldn't?
- Why does the conservatory have collapsed columns blocking the way that aren't anywhere else in the building? There's no place for them to have fallen from. They're not symmetrical with the other half of the building.
- Why wouldn't the walkways around planters go all the way around? How are you supposed to care for or harvest the contents on the sides without walkways?
- Why wouldn't the controls for rotating the planters be more easily accessible? There's 6 or so controls to raise and lower each planter, and one control to rotate them that you wouldn't even be able to access on foot.
- Why do you need to ride the ice block to get to the factory? Did OSHA approve that? How come the protective gear described on the sign isn't available?
- Why did the walkway in the ice processing center that the moving bridge fills collapse, and where did the collapsed floor go? There are no broken plates on the floor.
- Why is there even a movable room in the ice processing center? Why not just finish building the bridges and walkways?
- How did whoever put the moving bridge there leave? You can only reach it standing on top of an ice block.
- Why is the green pipe valve hidden behind a bunker? Wouldn't it be easier to build stairs?
- Why wouldn't you build stairs all the way to the ground instead of having to walk along the crane to an ice block to reach the stairs?
- Why are there blocks of ice all over outside the processing center?
- How did all the ice blocks get around the base of the crane? Why not grind those up instead?
- How did the block of ice block the pathway, then the bridge get closed, except intentionally?
- Why not put all the controls for the sulfur mixer in one socket?
- Why is there a giant door requiring three sockets to get connected? The tracks don't go through, and there's nothing to be moved from one side to the other, and no vehicle nearby. Why is it there, and who closed it for that matter?
- Who would build a vehicle where the part you need to line up can't be seen from the steering wheel? Camelus' back door is not visible from the steering wheel. The first ice crane has to be automated at each end because you can't see what's happening. The alignment of the second ice crane is invisible from inside the crane, requiring the platform out the side.
you get to the end, and it becomes even more absurd, given that everything you've seen was intentionally designed and built.
- Why would the crane be constructed to run into the cliff? Put it farther out like the bubble car, or don't put rocks jutting out to block its path.
- Why would the sulfur need to be mined? It's not really a planet. Why not stacks of sulfur bricks? Why are there geysers in space?
- Why would you build the bubble car rails where they'd get frozen by ice? There's no seasonal run-off making waterfalls so you had to know that would happen.
- Why pretend you're mining coal? Why launch your coal supply from the ground in rocks instead of extracting it on Earth?
- Why are you wasting coal melting ice anyway? Just use the water before you freeze it. Why build the heat-powered power plant in the coldest realm?
- Why not build the steam furnace downhill from piles of coal and a big pool of water?
- What were you planning to do with a bunch of mountains in orbit when you got to your destination?
- Lots of puzzles block you from turning them off once solved. Why? And how'd they even get in that state in the first place? Nobody is working against you, and nobody has more authority to make changes than you do.
And many more I don't remember the details of.
Given Cyan's track record, one might ponder some of the inconsistencies in implementation and wonder whether they have a deeper meaning. I
couldn't find any.
- The first double-bridge you come to, you have to navigate around to cross; the second double-bridge you can just reach the adjunct across; the bubble car there (I think) is positioned in a way that the last person to leave couldn't set up.of mentor dialog or books or something.
- Only one bunker has an alternate exit.
- Only one bunker has a hibernation bed. Did she drag that there? Her monologue doesn't sound like it.
- It seems like a bad idea to have the Juleston bunker close you in when the power goes off.
- Places blocked by rubble have nowhere above for the rubble to have come from.
- Collapsed floors that need to be bridged have no broken flooring or rubble under them, nor is there any reason for them to have collapsed.
- The first double-bridge you come to, you have to naviate around to cross; the second double-bridge you can just reach the adjunct across; the bubble car there (I think) is positioned in a way that the last person to leave couldn't set up.
- The moving bridge near the ice grinder for sure could not have been left that way (unless someone got ground up). Otherwise riding the ice wouldn't be a puzzle.
- The first place you need to connect three sockets, and there's only one order they connect in.
- The second place needs four sockets connected, but still shows "1/3" when you do the first one.
- When there's some option not currently available for a socket, you're not given that option. Or maybe it goes "Doink". Or maybe just nothing happens. Or maybe it's dimmed out. Or maybe it starts and then immediately reverts.
Compare to Myst: Myst was surreal, magical. It's expected in such situations that there will be weirdness. Nevertheless, essentially every puzzle was reasonable in its environment and grounded and somewhat predictable. Things like getting the key to the lighthouse was grounded in basic physics; things like resetting the spaceship after a mistake, or figuring out how to deduce the stoneship symbols, or raising the channelwood tree, were based on wide-spread cultural references. Where there were other puzzles, the end-goal was shown in advance, with you almost always running across the lock before being presented with the keys. The rare maze allowed you to (mostly) see where you were going several steps ahead and also told you the destination before you found it. The pointers to the story were left in conspicuous places (the note on the grass, the blue and red books). Also, the weird crap was explained in extensive world-building (heh) books in the library. Nothing (almost) was hidden just to make a puzzle harder. The solution to each puzzle was presented while you're in the puzzle trying to figure out the solution, if only you were clever or observant enough to understand it. If you wanted to get into the spaceship, you followed the wires. The elevator trick in Mechanical Age wasn't hidden; you just had to think about why the elevator didn't start right away. The most hidden thing there was the secret panels, which were secret, but still had a target drawn on them. Every place you were stymied by a lock, the lock was intentionally put there to keep natives of the land away from the books, or to keep others from using the books on Myst Island (i.e., the places of protection).
Contrast with (say) the greenhouse puzzle: first you have to figure how to get to the entrance riding the skiff, because that made so much more sense than another flight of stairs or a ladder; thank goodness the vines didn't quite
close off every
path. Then you have to figure out that the place you're trying to go is the other side of the planters on the same level (and not to the thing that looks like a lift or ladder), even though you can't see the other side. Then you ride the things around a while, trying to see the walkways above and below you, before realizing there's another doorknob down at the bottom; good thing they all have distinctive lights on them, eh? That doorknob can only be reached from where you're far from your goal, and from a limited number of puzzle states, then you have to work your way all the way back up, and then if you're lucky you'll have figured out how to turn the planters so you can dodge across. Sometimes you can cross on the diagonal, sometimes it's a fraction too far. And your knees don't bend, so you can't get over the foot-high plank lying on the floor. Or look at the steam pipes and heaters. You need to turn them on, and oh goody, they light up when you do. But some of the doorknobs don't glow; other sockets on the pipes aren't doorknobs they just look that way. Some of the pipes go above the surface, and you can't tell where they come back down. You then can turn on electric heaters using steam, somehow. You have to go down to turn one on, then melt some ice, then coming back up requires turning that off again. Several times you have to turn it on, then turn it off again because the valve was installed in a way that blocks the walkway. There's a valve hidden behind a grate for some reason, but fortunately your other tool can go through grates and the walkway passes by quite close. Then you have to turn on a valve, loop around to go two levels down, turn on the second valve that you can't get to because the steampunk builders thought it was a good idea to install valves that block the pathway, come back up far enough to turn on the third valve, go back down to turn on the heater, come back up and turn off
the first valve, then you can progress. And when you've worked the steam power all the way to the end, what do you get? A steam-powered machine? No, just the same electric lift as in every other realm. Good thing, because you had to turn the steam off again to get to the other side of the path. The only reason for the steam pipes is to make a puzzle that somehow runs electric heaters off steam pressure, with electricity at both ends of the path already. Oh, and there's a hundred meters of gangway in loops and ramps in the water, instead of, you know, a path from one side to the other.
Compare to Riven: Riven is grounded like Firmament. It's not particularly supernatural. The stuff is mechanical, not magical. If someone disappears from a one-door room, there's probably a hidden switch. Granted, "fire marbles" aren't explained, and why there would even need to be clues to get into Tay is unclear story-wise, but OK, combinations to locks need to be written where you can find them. And the mine cart going under water was just Rule Of Cool. Everything else
makes sense. Secret passages are only secret from one side. Doors are locked between where Ghen moves and where natives move, and locked on the side where Ghen is. When there's a "hidden" passage that's hard to see, the people who created it leave a pointer (usually a dagger). When there's a hidden door, you can see into the adjacent room so you know to look for the door. There's no case of "wander all over the level holding the 'show me interaction points' control, trying to figure out if there's a button that enables some other part of the level to work." There's no wondering whether you need an upgrade to even start working on this puzzle. If there's a hidden button to make something work, you can follow the wire to it (the fan), or see the pathway over there, or see the room through the window (book assembly island dome), or notice from where you start there's only one other path of many open (the lake sub), or etc. Look at the design of the wood pulp boiler vs the sulphur mixer. And again, the reason for all the locks are explained in-game. Riven is a masterclass in adventure game design because the puzzles all make sense in the context and story of the game, all of which we see before we need to know it, and there's almost nothing arbitrary
about the puzzles.
Contrast with Firmament: Firmament looks
realistic, but is surreal in detail. The entire place acts like one giant puzzle, with a dozen unintuitive steps to get from each place to the next. It has knobs that can control things remotely, but uses that capability to put things out of reach instead of making things easier, even tho the only people with adjuncts would be people who are supposed to be working the machines. It has machinery on rails constructed too close to other features to let the cars pass (like the first crane blocked by rocks, the second crane blocked by ice, the bubble car blocked by the ice, etc), which is even more silly when you find out the cliffs aren't natural either. It uses complex machinery of all different kinds to accomplish the same ends; the skiff vs the first crane vs the second crane vs the sulfur trains; the conveyance pods vs the bubble cars vs (cripes) riding blocks of ice and hopping off hopefully before you reach the shredder blades. There are places where simple stairs or bridges could be built, but instead there's a half dozen baroque processes to get from one place to another place a literal stone's throw away (see "riding blocks of ice" as well as the pointless skiff and the pointless steam pipes and ....). There's several kinds of power supplies which have to be turned on, each of which powers only the bits of puzzle blocking your way. There are innumerable doorknobs placed in cages where you have to be at the right angle to fire them with no obvious reason for the cage walls to be blocking you from there (see "riding blocks of ice"). Even at the end you have to walk entirely around the axis twice to unlock a door you're 20 feet from when you come out into space.
Compare to Exile: Exile is surreal, but this time it's intentionally designed by its creator to be surreal. Each age has a purpose and a theme, and it looks
designed (unlike Myst's ages). The design of each Age gives you clues to the solutions of the puzzles, and then plays into the endgame. You have an ongoing story that tells you the motivations of the people involved. You have a reason you're suddenly thrown into the situation alone. (As in Myst and Riven, for that matter.) No need for the cliche loss of memory or untrustworthy narrator (both features of Firmament, both described in the opening monologue). There's a reason the puzzles are more difficult than you'd think necessary. The same reason is why there are clues how to solve them scattered about. And you're shown the ways in which the puzzles were made more difficult, which helps tell the story; nothing is randomly broken by accident. When you solve an age, you get a beautiful reward of getting to see the age laid out before you to admire. The ending is fulfilling, and in your hands, left to you to figure out how to bring about some solution or the best solution.
Contrast with Firmament: No setup other than a monologue telling you "you remember nothing, I might lie, go do puzzles I mean maintenance work." The puzzles are arbitrary-progress-blockage puzzles. There's very little where you have to think about what the world is like to make things work. The ages don't feel any different from each other, because every one is "figure out where the path is, where the goal is, and then try to find where you can reach the doorknob from." There's no puzzle having to do with ice on Curievale (other than the heaters, which are just different forms of doors). There's no puzzle having to do with plants on St. Andrew. Even places where you might have figured it out, it was tedious rather than clever; for example, the batteries were painted colors. Imagine how it would have been if you could see into the water and each post had a different number of batteries wired to it? I don't really want to spend time doing linear algebra to figure out puzzles during my gaming hour. And when you do solve a puzzle, half the time you're inside a building or vehicle where you can't see what's happening; the shutters only open once, the bubble cars obscure most of the view, engaging the Embrace doesn't make it obvious the doors are opening in the spire, etc.
How could I have done better? Well, I don't design games for a living, but I've been playing adventure games since they were coded in FORTRAN and printed their text on paper. There are a few obvious places the puzzles could have been made more enjoyable.
- Make the batteries in Juleston visible through the water, with different pylons having different numbers of batteries visibly connected. Then you don't have to do linear algebra and experiments to figure out what's going on, and the fact that the final step is also providing power would be obvious. This would leave open the possibility for the people who want to do linear algebra. (Sort of like how the sound direction clues in Mechanical Age let you navigate in Selentic Age even though there were adequate clues if you went to Selentic first.)
- Keep the steam pipes underwater, so you can follow where the next valve is.
- Actually require the player to mix the sulfur with the sulfur mixer, just for realism. And don't just have the computer tell the user what the next step is. "Door crusted." "Too much acid." "Pool full." Show, don't tell, like with the crusted lock at the start. Maybe make it so you can look into the pool before you add sulfur and see that there are controls down there, and locking lugs, and crusty stuff.
- When a machine finally turns on, make it obvious why you needed that machine in the first place. The whole "turn on steam" in Curievale was there to clear the way of ice in your way (with electric heaters, no less), while the builders could have just put a walkway over or straight through the water there. They could have made the lift at the end obviously running on steam pressure, which might have even made sense in the context of the steampunk origin story. The whole "turn on the batteries" in Juleston was there to power a half dozen machines while other machines all over already had power. Why does the Juleston bunker (you know, the place holding all the maintenance supplies) need battery power to be accessible and the others don't? (Oh, that's right, achievements.) Why did you have to send power to the bunker in order to open the giant doors? And again, the sulfur didn't need mixing (can you tell I'm traumatized?).
- Put some puzzles in that have to do with the age. Require a puzzle where you have to know ice floats, like drop a giant floating ice cube in the resevoir to get across. Require a puzzle where you have to fertilize or poison (with sulfur?) or electrocute (after powering up Juleston?) plants to progress through St Andrew. Let the player pick up a battery to locally power puzzles in Juleston (due to broken wires?) instead of just declaring that this lift lacks power but that lift works fine.
Anyway, that's my
rambling rant. Hope you enjoyed. :)
P.S., what it reminds me most, thinking on it, is all the knock-off adventure games that came out right after Myst became a world-wide success. Except refined and moved into the 2020s.
submitted by dnew
to FirmamentGame [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 19:09 turducken404 Wiring a sourced 96v battery for a QS205 5000w Bike Build
Hey all. I've been thinking about building one of these bombeenduro type bikes where I can source the parts on Aliexpress. I don't really like buying expensive prebuilt batteries though, so I usually build something from parts sourced at batteryhookup
. I noticed they have an auction for a pallet (40) of these Panasonic 48v backup
modules that look like I wouldn't even have to disassemble. What I am thinking of doing though, is running them in serial pairs sandwiched (26s) at 96v and then chaining 3 (more or less) in parallel. If you follow the link and look at the wiring diagram, it seems like it would be easy to add a BMS to a single sandwiched pair (26s4p) with the connections and binding posts.
I have a few questions though. If I were to run a variable number of sandwiched 96v pairs in parallel (26s12p for example), is there a simple way that you can think of where I can set up the BMS so balance cables and the load out are on the first pair of batteries (master), and I utilize the binding posts to daisy chain as many (slave) pairs as I see fit? I'm sure I could wrap my brain around it better if I spent half the day scribbling it out, but I figured I would ask here first as I may get an immediate NO and go about my day. It's a steal at the price, but most of their batteries there are between $75 and $100 a kWh, so if I had to just pull them apart and build something, I would probably go higher capacity cells.
Also, what are your thoughts on 96v systems? I'm assuming 26s is acceptable for a 96v nominal controller and motor, even though its actually around 110v fully charged, but maybe not. Maybe you are all running LiFePo4 for 96v or something, not sure. Anyhow, if you read this far, cheers!
submitted by turducken404
to eBikeBuilding [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 18:59 Quick_Permission1205 Instrumentation and Control Technician 4th Period exam
Hey guys, I recently graduated the Instrument Technologist program and completed the 3rd period technician exam. Im challenging the 4th period exam soon and I just wanted some advice on what to expect from people who have done it before.
What was the hardest part of the exam for you?
Were there any questions which required you to refer to a PLC program? (Like a ladder diagram etc)
Was it heavy on the Advanced process control mathematics or more so theory? Like multivariable, ratio control and FF control calculations?
Thanks for the help anything is appreciated!
submitted by Quick_Permission1205
to NAIT [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 18:11 AitheriosMist Don't get sidetracked
Let me ask you people here a question: when you read a post here on this subreddit that gets your attention and 'makes it click' for you, what do you do after? Let's say two days after reading it, do you remember what it said? Do you have these lessons present (really present) everyday?
I'm telling you this because it seems people usually forget things and get caught up on other everyday stuff so they get sidetracked. Or maybe they go down a rabbit hole of techniques, videos, posts, etc.
You better understand that we've all been programmed in different ways that are not compatible with how the law works, so your default state is probably not the most optimal for conscious manifesting. The only way to reprogram your mind and change your life is consistency. So especially in the beginning is very important to have the key ideas present in your everyday life, at least until it's integrated in your mind and your way of life. Not trying to push an assumption here but I do believe you can't do this overnight, or after reading a post or watching a video, it needs consistent mind work. It needs trial and error too, it's a process, it's an art that can be mastered. It probably needs motivation too, the most amazing changes in people's lifes come after they get fed up with their lifes, or after some events that lit a fire in their hearts, if you really grasp the idea that you can get everything you've ever wanted with the law and you're still not motivated, then I don't know what to tell you. Wait a minute, I do know: discipline. Discipline conquers what motivation doesn't, but you still need to put in the consistent work. Once it's mastered and really integrated, you'll not be sidetracked anymore since it becomes your default state.
So my tip here is to get these key ideas, these posts that made it click for you, and save them. Make a list, a diagram, a drawing, recording, whatever you want, make it simple and keep it short, and read it, watch it, hear it everyday. As many times as necessary, so it gets into your skull, because you'll probably forget it otherwise. Hell I even have a small tattoo that says I AM
on my wrist, and I see it everyday. Do it until you no longer need reminders because it's part of you.
So to end this post I'll list some of those key ideas that I have saved in my own journey, feel free to add some of your own if you like:
- It's all about you and your mind, 3D is just an output of your mental state.
- Every thing or person that is relevant to you (especially if you put them on a pedestal) shows you something about yourself, use them to be conscious and realize what you need to work on.
- Circumstances don't matter since they are not set in stone, they change as you change.
- Don't focus on getting things, focus on giving yourself the wish fulfilled.
- Creation is finished, you don't have to force anything, you can't lose anything, just connect to the reality where you already have it.
- You can have bad days or low moments, don't repress them, but observe them from a distance and let them pass, they always pass if you let them.
- You don't need permission to live your best life and your wish fulfilled, forgive and forget to be free. A God is boundless.
- People will act the way you expect them to (EIYPO), not the way you like to, unless it becomes an expectation, you can't fool yourself with this one.
submitted by AitheriosMist
to NevilleGoddard [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 17:05 Prestigious-Role-650 How do I not get horny while studying the sexual reproduction diagram?
So as you guys know, when the human brain sees private parts of the opposite gender, it gets horny and the person immediately starts masturbating. However, tis us happening to me when I see both the vagina and penis diagrams in my textbook. I can’t study when I’m horny. Is there anyway to study and masturbate at the same time? Thank you.
submitted by Prestigious-Role-650
to ICSE [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 16:36 throwaway_scholar3 Fig. 3a analysis
| || | submitted by throwaway_scholar3 to gybe [link] [comments]
Introduction Fig. 3a
is the title of the hand-drawn insert included with vinyl copies of F♯ A♯ ∞
. It is a mysterious and, to be honest, unhinged-looking document. I think most people stare at it for a bit and then bounce off of it. I’d like to offer my analysis as to what parts of it may mean. A high-resolution scan of Fig. 3a
Let us begin with the diagram itself – the faulty schematics of the ruined machine. As its essence, it is a circumscribed triangle with an X/Y axis that has curious labels. The X axis has two sets of labels: a musical note and an emotion (the emotion is denoted by square brackets). The Y axis has only emotion labels.
Consider for a moment the space between the notes F# and A# on a keyboard. When examining a single octave, there’s not much between them, and G# is in the center. I think this interpretation is probably not one we’re meant to make, and I think the next three interpretations will explain why.
If we instead consider F# and A# across two octaves, we get something a bit more interesting: a range of notes large enough for some chords and/or melodies, and the note D right in the middle. Put a pin in that.
A 44-key keyboard, for reference
Considering this space between three octaves leads to yet a larger range of notes with the note G# in the middle once again. I still think this is a red herring, because of something we’ve been ignoring: the scale in the bottom right of the diagram.
This scale, when superimposed on the circle, approximately matches the distance between the edge of the circle and its center. The numbers on the scale (0, 3, 5, 12, 15, 18), also appear to be musical intervals. So what happens if, across four octaves, we count 18 semitones to the right from a low F# and 18 semitones to the left from a high A#? What we end up with are two ranges: F#2 to C4 and E4 to A#5. Directly between these two ranges is middle D, or D4, or 293.665 hertz.
Okay, that gives us a plausible explanation of the X axis. How about the Y axis? The lesser labeling on this axis gives us less to go on, but we are given one additional clue on the far left side of the page: two vertical ranges representing TAPE HISS and TAPE RUMBLE. These align with the HI and LO markings on the Y axis line, indicating that higher frequencies at the center of the X axis get closer to fear whereas low frequencies get closer to hope. Observe that no note information is present in tape hiss or tape rumble, indicating that perhaps the note doesn’t change on the Y axis, but rather the expression of that note? Perhaps fear is a D6 and hope is a D2?
Why is LO MID to the right and HI MID to the left? I would expect the opposite. This might imply that the X axis is flipped horizontally, but changing the range to be A#2 to F#5 results in the two ranges overlapping, which might not be correct.
What role do effects and different instrumentation play? Music is rarely made with nothing but pure sine tones. There’s near-infinite room for expression of any note. How does all of that map onto Fig. 3a
What is the Babylonian Triangle of Captivity? Is it a good thing that its borders prevent pure regret and pure desire? Why are its corners labeled with all negative things? Is any point on the graph that touches the circumference bad? If so, what is the motivation for straying from the center?
The center of the graph is called the signal source
. Is it truly just a middle D? What role do these blue sparks, black smoke, and white flames play? Are they an expression of synesthesia?
Why is the circumference of the graph referred to as a tape loop so long it will take three lifetimes to hear in its entirety…
? Is it implied that the circumference rotates? Does that take the axes with it?
Ultimately, this post adds what is perhaps only a small amount of insight into Fig. 3a
, but it's more than I've seen posted anywhere and I think it's a good place to launch further analysis and discussion from.
2023.06.04 15:22 r3crac BANGGOOD Deals (4.6.2023)!
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Products compilation image: https://i.imgur.com/X2uk4td.jpeg
submitted by r3crac
to couponsfromchina [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 15:13 MarcvsPrimvs My first mod: ATH AD700x detachable cable.
2023.06.04 14:28 Angel466 [Bob the hobo] A Celestial Wars Spin-Off Part 0840
PART EIGHT HUNDRED AND FORTY [Previous Chapter] [The Beginning] [Patreon+2] Friday
Tucker Portsmith’s head pounded so hard he felt like a blood vessel was about to explode behind his eyes. All week he had been dividing his time between trying to find out why he and Helen were no longer permitted to see Alex and doing what was necessary to distance the company from Dyadron to listening to Helen rail about the failings of Pensacola, the US Navy and him as a father and a husband.
He knew he couldn’t contact anyone in the Pentagon for answers. Not after NCIS Director Scott Dyson contacted him via a video call to tell him to his face to stop asking questions that wouldn’t be answered at this time. No matter how hard he tried to word it differently, to get even a hint of what was going on, the director shut him down. Hard.
And then, he ended the call with a warning not to interfere. In any way. That they would contact him when they were ready.
Helen, of course, insisted he call the director back and demand the answers she wanted. She hadn’t taken ‘No’ well, but as much as she huffed and puffed, she would not budge him when his actions reflected on his business life. There were times to draw a line for the family and fight for what was right. When the entire US Military was telling you to stand down or risk going to jail and losing everything … that was not one of them.
Last night had been the first real night’s sleep he’d had all week, for they’d severed the last tie with Dyadron and were now completely clear of that nightmare. He might’ve had a drink or ten in private celebration of their achievements and promised Phillipa a steak and lobster dinner once a week for the rest of her life for her part in it. Right after he shook her senseless for not taking better care of herself. She’d been riding his backside about not overdoing it for so long it never occurred to him to do it for her. A mistake he wouldn’t repeat going forward, to be sure.
And now, he had visitors at—he squinted at the glowing timepiece on his side table—WTF o’clock in the morning! The pounding the door to the penthouse apartment took would’ve been heard throughout the building, made worse by the fact it was 5 am. He’d ignored the pounding at first, thinking Helen would answer the door, but when it continued relentlessly, he assumed she had already left to do one of her many daily workouts and dragged himself out of bed.
He tossed on a robe but forwent the slippers in his haste to reach the door. He tied the robe while in motion. “Coming!” he called because, of course, if Helen was gone, Donald would be with her, and he’d be alone. So far, that had suited him, as he’d been able to get a lot of work done without the interruptions.
He looked at the screen and was stunned to see four people crammed into the video image. Two in naval attire (he never did go into the whole who did what rank thing outside of Alex’s rank of Petty Officer) and two ill-fitting suits that made them either detectives or FBI.
The closest in a business suit had his fist raised to pound some more.
“Wait!” Tucker barked, unlocking the door from the inside and opening it just enough to stand in the way. “Can I help you?”
The plain-clothes person that had been beating on his door held up her badge for Tucker to see, along with a piece of paper folded into three, which she pushed into Tucker’s hand on his way past. “Federal agents. We need to conduct a search of your apartment, sir, and you need to step aside. We have a warrant.”
“A warrant for what?” Tucker demanded, opening the letter to skim the contents. In the central portion of the letter was Alexander’s name. They’re searching for Alex?!
“Are you insane?” he demanded as the rest of them followed the woman’s lead and muscled their way in. “Alex is in a coma! In the hospital! Why …?!” And then his sleep-deprived, mildly alcohol-infused, aching brain kicked in, and he whirled on the people who were sweeping into the living room. “Where is my son?!” he demanded, storming after the four. He caught up with the closest one, who happened to be navy and went to grab her when her partner stepped between them.
“Don’t be touching her, sir. Just stand over there. This won’t take long.”
“Someone had better tell me what the hell is going on! How did you even get a warrant at this ungodly hour?! Based on what? That we’re his parents, and we’re here because he’s in a coma?!”
He watched them head up the hall and try to strongarm the first door, which was locked. “NO!” he shouted, trying without success to push against the man holding him back. “You can’t go in there!”
“That warrant says we can check everything, Mister Portsmith…”
“That room contains access to military secrets that I assure you are NOT on any goddamn warrant, and this says you’re looking for Alexander. That’s fine. I’ll unlock the door, go in first and remove my computer, and you can search to your heart’s content for a comatose patient who isn’t here.”
When the four looked amongst themselves, Tucker straightened and said in his most authoritative voice, “The contents of that room go way above your pay grade, ladies and gentlemen. If you force your way into that room based on the information on this warrant, I assure you, the Pentagon will land on you so hard your families will forget what you look like by the time they see you again.” He stood his ground, knowing he looked as intimidating as a homeless puppy in his robe, but nevertheless, there was a reason he never left that room unlocked.
Finally, the male FBI agent stepped back and gestured at the door. “Unlock it, sir. You may follow me in and collect your computer. I assumed it’s powered down?”
“Of course. My keys are in my bedroom. The master suite, third door on the left in a drawer that can’t possibly contain my son, so you have no reason to open it.” Since the agent was the first to listen to reason, Tucker addressed him. “Let me know when I’m clear to go in there and get them.”
The agent gestured for the sailors to move ahead of them, and when he came back a few minutes later, silently shaking his head, the agent said. “If you’ll come with me, Mister Portsmith.”
Tucker hated being directed like this, but until he could lay his hand on his phone and unleash the avalanche of lawyers that he had at his disposal, he wasn’t sure what was and wasn’t acceptable in this situation. It wasn’t often feds and the military joined forces on things.
He opened the drawer and collected his keys while his other hand holding the warrant palmed his phone off its charging plate. As they went back to the office, he snapped a photo of the insidious document and sent it to his lawyers’ cell phones. Yes, multiple, because it wasn’t just one senior partner that took care of their legal needs but three.
“What did you just do?” the female agent demanded, pulling Tucker’s hands apart.
“I just sent this warrant to my lawyers in New York. You’d better hope you know exactly what you’re doing because…”
His phone immediately exploded with incoming calls, which had him smiling caustically at the woman. Without seeing who had reached him first, he used his thumb to connect the call and put it on speaker.
“Who is executing the warrant?” Julian Santos demanded, his deep baritone voice filling the hallway. The federal agent gave Tucker a disgusted look and gestured at the closed front door. I don’t think so, junior.
“Four, Julian. Two feds and two from the navy. They haven’t specifically identified themselves yet, and they want me to unlock my office door…”
“Don’t you dare! The warrant only demands a search of your present accommodations. It does not
include any rooms that fall under the banner of Portsmith Electronics. Those require a very different set of warrants that need to be issued directly from either Washington or the Pentagon, and I doubt you have those at the ready, correct agent?”
“We have the authority to search…” the male agent insisted but was cut off by the three-thousand-dollar an hour attorney.
“Do not unlock that door, Tucker. Even as we speak, I have people in Florida moving to have that search warrant quashed. It’ll be gone in just a few minutes.”
“Until then, this is a valid warrant.” The man turned and quickly gestured for the three with him to fan out, searching the penthouse apartment as fast and thoroughly as they could before the counter-injunction was handled. Well, well, well.
It seemed they were well aware of who they were squaring off with after all.
“Julian, I know Alex isn’t here. He’s been in a coma for over a week, and now they’ve lost him. If I go into my office and remove my computer, is there any harm in letting them search the office for Alex if only to make them go away?”
“Tucker, they’re not going away. The warrant gives them the authority to take you and Helen downtown for questioning.”
“Don’t worry. As I said, we’ll have a full team ready to move before you leave the apartment, which isn’t going to happen until more security is on hand for your laptop. Is Donald there?”
“He’s with Helen on her run.” The fact he had been locked inside the apartment for days and only ventured out when he was with Helen and, therefore, Donald was not something he was about to get into.
“Fine. I’ll get your office to organise a security detail for you and your computer. Stay put, don’t answer anything until we get there, and for Christ’s sake, leave me on speaker.” Tucker heard several tell-tale crackles in the line to indicate others had been patched into the call but had refrained from speaking.
It was a strange thing, but in Tucker’s head, he was picturing a virtual reality computer game where the enemy had him cornered until, one by one, his own team spawned around him to level the playing field … and then overwhelm it.
He didn’t hear Julian’s voice anymore and assumed he’d been muted so that the senior partner could bark out orders at whoever else was on the line with him.
“I guess you’re not an honourable man after all,” the male FBI agent said with a tight expression.
“Tell me why you think I’d break into a military hospital and kidnap my crippled son, and I’ll be the first to unlock that door.”
“Tucker!” Julian immediately came back onto the line.
“Relax, Julian. I have no idea what’s going on here, but they have no intention of telling me why they want Alex so badly.” Stiffening, he looked down at his phone. “Actually, make that a priority. There’s only so much the military can hide from us, especially if Alex was using family funds in any way to finance his situation. Have someone call Elias Stoll. He can track down Alex’s accounts and find out what he was up to that way.”
“NO!” the agents and the naval personnel all shouted at once.
“Tucker?” Julian queried, for the man wasn’t used to taking those types of directives any more than he was.
“If I do it, I’ll have to put you on hold,” he explained. The rest of that sentence went unspoken. If Julian wanted to remain an ear in the room, someone else had to do the legwork for him.
“Do not hang up,” Julian reiterated, and once more, Tucker was muted from the attorneys’ conversation.
And so began the dance of the law.
* * *
((All comments welcome. Good or bad, I'd love to hear your thoughts 🥰🤗)) I made a family tree/diagram of the Mystallian family that can be found here For more of my work including WPs: Angel466
or an index of previous WPS here
. FULL INDEX OF BOB THE HOBO TO DATE CAN BE FOUND HERE!!
submitted by Angel466
to redditserials [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 14:23 RatWazzock Roundabout recently changed - question
| || |
Hey all! First Reddit post so hope I get everything right!! submitted by RatWazzock to drivingUK [link] [comments]
This roundabout recently changed from being 2 lanes to 3 lanes and I've seen so much lane confusion as a result. If you're travelling straight across this roundabout which of these lane diagrams is correct? Which lane do you take to go straight across and emerge in the left hand lane on the second exit?
For more context, for a while there were no arrows indicating lanes at all, but recently an arrow (pictured) has appeared a little way before the left lane splits into two at the entrance of the roundabout. But even though the arrow is now there people are cutting each other up all the time.
I think part of the confusion is the left lane carries on PAST the first exit, making it look like you can take it to go straight across, then seems to merge with the second lane just before exit 2, where the road narrows a bit.
Thanks for your help!
2023.06.04 11:03 delForm_34 Part of interesting service system
From a while I'm training basic skills in Software Engneering area and create small simple project where users will exchange offers without money. Apart of financial system. So I've just created some Use Case Diagram on basic system scenarios and I want to ask You for a help to check. Is it quite good what I've created or I've here a lot of of particular mistakes. From the last couple months I read a book about Software Engeneering and this is a part where I try to create something practical.
PU3. Adding offer of service
- System display offer of service form
- Contactor fill all require fields (name, description, price, expected execution date)
- Contractor fill note field if it is necessary
- Contractor mark
- User confirm the offer on the system
- System register the offer on the database and assign an ID
PU4. Modification of offer introduced service
- System display list of registered service registered by performer
- Performer activate editing offer option
- System display information form concerning particular offer
- Performer modify particular offer in proper way
- Performer applying modified offer and confirm final modification window generated by the system.
If it will be necessery I'II add functional requirements
submitted by delForm_34
to SoftwareEngineering [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 10:45 hijesushere What would an angel title a post to get your attention? Not something like this, I can tell you that much.
Final note: Yeesh. Uh yeah, lotta mental illness inbound, brace yourself. Keep this one on a tight leash, you know what I mean? Wouldn't want this one around MY kpop girls... he'd try and take em all for himself, and he can't have them, because those kpop girls belong to me, and my meandering duckling armada. Ahc ahc ahc ahc ahc... yes... fool... You've fallen... you've walked RIGHT... into my TRAP... muah ha.. muah ha!.. muah ha ha ha ha! ! ! ! Yes! Why yes, it is I! Space Divisatron! And you, duckling, you, are in my secret lair! Muah ha! Muah ha! Sorry, you gotta understand something. This is the first thing that you're reading, but it's the last thing that I'm doing. I'm checking out. I'm going to beddddd you guys. It's been awesome, I had a great time. I hope you guys enjoy the music if you decide to tag along for any of it, they all some bops. Stay trill lil pastors, whoever whatever homies in this sub reading, it all good it all gravy. The man just glad to get it off his mind, cuz like, if yall don't do anything, then, like, I'm not doing anything else. I'll just make music and like go to school and stuff. I've got no other plan. It's whatever, I've actually got some hilarious plans lined up. I'm talking with some coworkers about making a time travel movie, I think that'd be dope. Anyways sorry, this is a serious post. I'll shut up now. Love you guys. Enjoy the show.
Note: the following is intended for mature audiences only. Viewer discretion is advised. All musical numbers optional, yet totally awesome if you're like, chilling, and like want me to DJ for you for a little bit; its cool, and you'll learn a little bit about me and my homies, but like, you don't have to listen to them all. But at least watch the first couple of red velvet vids when you get to them... it's whatever, none of it matters. It's not gonna matter, nothings gonna happen. But enjoy the music anyways, if you'd like, they're some of my favorites. Enjoy. I'm just gonna go until I stop so if you've got stuff to do, do it, man, it's just music. Luh u.
Think you guys can help me out? I had a problem... I used to have a problem, but it went away. But, I still have a different problem, so the problem now is that the problem from before is still going to be the problem because the problem is that the problem was a problem but now it's a problem because the problem is that the problem is the problem, problem is the problem problem is the problem.. because the problem problem is the problem problem, but there's still the problem problem's problem... you know what I mean? Anyways, here's the link. Boop
The end. Thank you. Now I'm gonna write a bunch of unrelated stuff because I've got a text box open and I wanna have some fun.
Suspect in sight.
I'm trying, where are you?
Call the convoy.
Yeah, we're about 19 klicks north north west.
This is alpha Roger's tango tango bravo requesting extel on your six, over.
Roger that tango six we've got alpha squad and bravo 30 at half past bravo inside the inner corpus, should we pull on?
Roger that 5 7, we've gotta tango on 15 by 7 1 6, I'm gonna need a corporal to exchange these fluid mapping fields.
Roger that Commander, this is Extel number 99654. We've got fluid mapping diagrams pouring in towards the encel chamber on the dial. Look forward to the enumeration of the higher divisible sectors.
Roger that 9 0, Lance corporal we've got a 16 nye 9 7 over 16 point Charlie, can I proceed?
Roger that corporal, firing torpedoes in 3, 2,...
Reacquiring Target: locked on.
Exquisite the torquoines.
Aye aye sir.
Avast! Me hearties. On the salt of the phome, keel haul the whole of the lot!! Sand dibbers and quick witted; bought the whole farm, but now they're in their jitters! Oy ayve then bruv. Oi. Oi ain't that ahw she wrote foh ya, lass. Ain't that just the whimsy stone me bruv. Oy, oy hold up, wots this?
They hit us with their astral geometry fielding DMT cannon, sir.
Who's still out?
We've lost Hawkins and Diamacles.
We're going to have to reroute through the subfield.
🏖..... .......🏜 🏘...... ........🌋
When the rest of the men wake up, tell then we had to field the rest of the indraspersal mechanisms without them. Tell them to relax the endrometer into the subdiametric fielding index, and come light this Tordive Quagnation Generator for me as well; I need to relax after the mission.
....... yes, sir?
Corporal, have I ever told you you've got, just, the cutest little button nose?
Thank you, sir.
I mean it private,
Yes private, I thank my lucky stars that I have me on our team. My gosh kiff, what'd we ever do without me on our side?
I don't know, sir.
Kiff, it's cause for celebration. Pour me a glass of my finest Cherry and prepare me the good scented candles: tonight, Ron Jeremy is coming over to play Buttercream Gang.
What's Buttercream Gang, sir?
If you have to ask.. kiff; my God, have I ever told you how delightfully swollen your ankles are?
Thank you, sir.
I mean it, kiff. You're a sight for sore eyes, a real, honkin hoopah.
Thank you, sir.
And I don't say that lightly.
Sir can we get back to the-
Attention all Men, this is your Captain speaking, I'm gonna need all hands on deck, we've got a Loaded Diaper on Planet Xylon 7; I repeat, this is a loaded diaper situation. We're going to bring it in hot, men, and then we're gonna slide ourselves into every position that we need to be in. I don't fancy myself much of a dancer, but tonight, boys, we're going to be dancing with- Kiff, where is my cutical brush?
Underneath the chair sir.
Cloak it in alabaster and give it to a raven, kiff, what am I, your grandma? Pick up the alabaster spoon, kiff.
And you men! Take these chloroform rags and hide them somewhere that a certain special someone won't ever find them. And the rest of you, I will see in the morning. Bright; early. Team spirit! Aha! Milk does the body good
Yooooo what a great song, I just listened to it again. I'm gonna do everything as I say it haha, if you wanna do it with me, virtually. That was Kellen Quinn with Pierce the Veil, super cool guys, love them cats. They've both got a ton of great music. Check this one out, this ones pretty. Here
Ok, man, that was awesome, what a great song, what a fantastic vocalist. So talented. I'm thinking kpop, surprise, right? But which one to start... it's like I'm at a God buffet... let's see, uhhhhh pick one pick one so bad it's so bad alright so bad it is it's fantastic it's a great song here you go hold up a sec lemme get it, alright here
you go. 3, 2, 1, boom.
Yooooooo suuuuuch a good song, man, such a good song. Ugh. Man. It just makes me feel so good. Alright, next, I'm thinking Queendom, because, well, watch it with the subtitles on, but like, you're not gonna get what I want you to get, so, just watch it, it's a great song. Here
. See you on the other side.
Haha like you saw that, right? Like the whole thing, man. Haha, I know, I'm nuts, but still... like, for me, I'm like, oh, haha, oh yeah.. haha but... haha anyways whatever haha I dunno. Let's watch some more red velvet, I lice them so bad you guys, I lice them... that's like love on steroids. They some queens bruh, they do be, bruh. They do be. Let's check it, let's see, ummm, what about everglow? Let's do everglow. Pirate? I'm feeling
it. Alright, here we go.
Ok, dang, like, how do we top Pirate. Hmmm I'm thinking yuhhhhh wellll hmmmm I mean I'm kind of feeling MCR but it's like I'm gonna get half way through it and want to change it, let's see... uhhh.... how about the donny darko theme song. Lemme find it. Nah fuck that shit that's terrifying bro, I forgot how scary that shit was bro. Like it wasn't scary then but now im like what the fucking shit man. Yo fuck that noise. Sorry, oops, ah man, sorry I wasn't supposed to swear, that's my bad you guys. Let me think ughhhh how about yeah, here
Haha, man, Red Velvet man, haha, oh, gosh, haha that's so awesome, haha, I don't think you're gonna get why I think like what I'm laughing at or whatever, it's dumb I'm not gonna tell you. alright let's see what's next, feel my rhythmmmmm dudeeee yesssss ok here
. Alright see you in a minute.
So goooood you guys ok let's see one more Ted Bundy I mean Red Velvet, Ted Bundy why'd I write that, that's weird. Alright let's see, hmm, I'm thinking either Russian roulette or peekaboo, let's start with Peekabooh, Joy looks fantastic in this one. Here OH NO WAIT. wait wait wait FIRST
yesssss. Ok cya in a minute.
Ah, man, so cool you guys. I'd love to meet them someday, they must be so awesome. I feel like they'd like the real me, you know what I mean? But like, I'm kind of still kind of weird still, I'm still not all the way better yet. I'm doing a lot better though. I'm definitely getting there. My cognitive functions are basically at a normal smart person level right now. There's not enough stimulus... where are the crowds, you know what I mean? I guess I could move to the city but... it doesn't matter anyways. Alright let's see, Peekabooh? Yuhh
Dang, I wish some of these had lyrics. I'd way rather show you guys the video then the lyrics tho, they're all so fire... man are they fire. Let's see... yoooo red flavor dude... here
, haha it's so weird I can like feel you looking at me. But we gotta do lyrics, I want you to hear what they say.
Haha, it's funny, because I didn't even know what the lyrics were. I was just like, huh, yeah let's read this one. It was cute tho. Did we do power up yet? If we did, we're doing it again. BPM
. You've simply got to see Irene in this one, bro, oh my gosh. All of them dude it's like, are you joking? Like are you joking? Like have you ever seen anybody more attractive? It's just, it's literally impossible. It's impossible. They're the finest girls in existence. Ok here I go, take it on the other side(😫).
Ok, one more Red Velvet, and then we'll do another by Nature. Tada
. And for the record yes I realize that I am fully insane but I'm harmless and, really just, phenomenal at Charafrumbian Thought Plasmating you know what I mean? Let's get it now.
I don't care what anybody says you guys: I'm marrying all of the kpop girls. Noone can stop me. You're gonna have to throw me in the thickest mental institution in the whole nebula, man, because, let's face it; when it comes to things I wouldn't do for kpop girls, there isn't a whole lot. Kpop girls are pretty much the only reason any of us exist, anyways. It's so we can worship kpop girls for all time. It's plain as day you guys. Oh My gosh they look incredible in wildside. They're voices nOOOOOO WHAAAAAT IS HAPPENING OH MY GOOOOO cmon tho, fr. Like, it's like a portal to heaven. Huh, a portal to heaven. Wonder how that'd go.
Alright let's see, what's next, man there's no topping that: absolutely incredible. Oh now you can listen to the songs that I wrote about red velvet; its terrifying. Absolutely gut wrenchingly terrifying. But yo, they some bops, fr. Gotta start with Ireeeeene
broooooo. I kind of sound like SpongeBob when I sing. DAHAHAHA. DAHAHAHA. haha.
Yo nexxxxxxxt.... Lisa
Yoooo Lisa's a bopppp you guysssss it's a bop mannnnn, alright, yeri, or joy? Joy yeri joy yeri yeri joy joy yeri yeri joy yojjoy yohjoyhoymenoymenakrushima yeri started playing it's Yeri
. Such a bop. She's so cool. Such a vibe. So cool, they're all so chill seeming. Must be so much fun to make music for your job, that's what I'm gonna do, I gotta make music with someone famous and then I can bounce around, if people wanna chill with me, or whatever. Just if people want to. But anyways, let's do seulgi
now. Yuhhhhhh this one was just reading names of songs off the side of the page on a YouTube video. Damn this one is way cooler than I remember, haha yo that's so chill.. alright yo, Joy3
. Man, Joy's so awesome. I could write about her.
She stands alone; a tower in the east: fallen rain holds back it's light, towards her fallen brow had the seasons Lent their light, for time itself stood still in her presence. She was the corruption of grace, the essence of darkness. She was the highest light, the most level head. Fallen snow on the mountaintops could've never prepared, how could any.. it is in a time, that she is; for wherever she is, all will follow, and wherever I fear to tread, she will be, because she is the dew, she is the snow, she is the eye which brings light: for all of time has stood still in the darkness of her fallen state. Amen.
Fuck yeah dude that was metal sorry, swearing, oh dang it have I been swearing again you guys, I'm sorry. Alright, Wendy's
turnnnn. This one is just, man, me and Wendy go back, you know what I mean? She'll get it...
Alright we got one for Mia too, check it Hereee
... yuhhh this one a bop bruh... chill times. Haah fr I f with this one, this ones really fun to dance with.
Alright, back to Nature
. Sorry, you can go, here, I'll update the beginning.
Alright let's seeeee.... uhhhhh, hmmm, ok let's do more everglow oh no wait, have you guys heard of Le Sserafim? They're awesome, check this one out this
Yoooo, they're so awesome. I freaking love angels you guys. I mean humans are great, but like, angels still get it, you know what I mean? Haha get it, because of their name. You know who's next? You know. Cmon, my x chrome... it's freaking Aespa man. Kwaaangyaaaa
, love all my Christian rock bands you guys. Hold on a second, Looney Toons island just called and they wanna know when to expect me. Let me call them back on the rubber duckies i keep under the refrigerator magnets. Let's get it. Next Level.
Such a freaking bop you guys. Anyways I'm feeling savage. https://youtu.be/WPdWvnAAurg
Like, ugh, anyways ummm let's see man, I gotta go inside, I'm still sitting in my car, haha. I got a salad and some potato soup at work, yuhhh. Let's see, oh, duh, lmao, Red Velvet bruh, honestly. https://youtu.be/YBnGBb1wg98
like I love all these Christian rock bands you guys, they're my favorites in all of reality. Really should have more fans then they do, to be quite honest. Alright here I go.
Dang that's weird, I swear these normally have like, lyrics or whatever. I know the words but I don't see lyrics, that one's pretty, hopefully they'll show up for you. Alright uhhh umpah umpah bro. https://youtu.be/vHS9E6JFja8
Dang, such a bop. Alright, these dudes are awesome https://youtu.be/KSH-FVVtTf0
Yo check this one if you're still watching https://youtu.be/HvGql8HwOIM
Yo, itzy dude, https://youtu.be/F-QTb-0wRGk
, blah blah blah, oh my goodness you guys, holy heck man: have you guys seen freaking itzy you guys? Like come on you guys help me out, we gotta save the world for kpop girls. We can check me in to the mental hospital the minute we finish, I'll probably need a break: but it'll be like a naruto hot springs scene with me and a bunch of kpop Jewish grandmas... if you know wh- I'm talking about kpop girls. Oh yo I gotta listen to this, brb.
Or wait, no, because we're all in agreement now, we're all on the same page: I'm just Tanner. Got it, hearing you loud and clear, fellow human beings. I am a human being, as my body is a human body, therefore, I am, in fact: a human being. Yo sneakers?? UMMM... I'm thinking freaking sneakers you guys. https://youtu.be/Hbb5GPxXF1w
Alright yo this one is cool too. All of itzys newest stuff has just been hitting so hard for me. It's crisp, it's like rain water you know what I mean. Like it just hits. Scope: https://youtu.be/zugAhfd2r0g
Alright yo we gotta do something, look you guys, just look at poor, innocent red velvet: just look: https://youtu.be/uR8Mrt1IpXg
. Is that right, does that look right to you? They're devastated you guys. Think of the Kpop girls, for once, in this desolate life. Isn't anything sacred anymore? https://youtu.be/J_CFBjAyPWE
Red Veeeeeeeeellllllllllveeeeeeeeeeet, they're uh, they're pretty cool, they uh, I like them a normal amount that you should like a foreign rock band. I'm normal, you see, I used to be mentally ill, but I got better. So now I'm fine. But I was, for a while. Glad that's all over with and we can focus on what's important: Red Velvet and Everglow and Aespa and like, all the other famous people. Welcome to the shoooooowwwwwwww please come insiiiiiide LADIES AND GENTLEMEN UHH DO YOU WANT ITT UH DO YOU NEED ITTT UH LET ME HEAR ITT LADIES AND GENTLEMEN... phew, yuhh, this is fun, I feel like I'm hanging with like, whoever you are, you know what I mean? No strangers here fam, we always been friends, we always never been strangers. News tonight with David Cassidy: local Chattanooga resident found dead in apparent kpop girl memorabilia related injury. More details, at 11. https://youtu.be/iTgcp1oDk2M
<<< put a ****** in my ******* skull. End my life. Put me down. Do it. Do it again. Let's - I'm not joking. Do it, it's the only way, you guys. It's the only thing that will ever stop me.
Man you guys, I'm shaking and sobbing uncontrollably after that one. Hmmm, it's kind of late, I'm sort of tired. Maybe just a few more. You're cool for staying this late if you're still chilling, or if you like skipped around or whatever, that's cool too. I'm just hanging out. I just already had the text box open, you know what I mean? This is all just stuff I would talk to any new friends about, if they're actually going to get to know me.
How bout these girls? https://youtu.be/Ut1OzEVUiM4
Well start cooling it down a bit https://youtu.be/AbZH7XWDW_k
Man she's awesome. She's a Goddess dude, do you see her here? Artemis lookin type lady. So cool. That easily could've been the last song, but I'll wrap it up with this next one. Completely, like, it's just a random song: any of these could've been the last song. Except not really because it's been a total vibe coaster my broski. I hope you've enjoyed the tide. Scope it: https://youtu.be/0xdB_vo4r2c
Ok, one more. https://youtu.be/kHLHSlExFis
Ok, I lied https://youtu.be/POe9SOEKotk https://youtu.be/dISNgvVpWlo
ok maybe just a few more https://youtu.be/bwmSjveL3Lc
I know this is a lot, I got off work and, well, I'm sort of working, you know what I mean? If I'm... nevermind.
Alright last one and I'm done talking to you little silly head "pastors" haha, awwww, so sweet. Yall are so cuuuuute oh my goodness. I love it so much. You guys love God that's incredible :) God's soooo chill, you guys are gonna love him. He's awesome, fr. We're all awesome. All of us are super super cool. https://youtu.be/ioNng23DkIM
I'm sorry I just can't hang up the phone yet.. https://youtu.be/9pdj4iJD08s https://youtu.be/gQlMMD8auMs
Yo this almond milk tastes like perfume.
One more I guess https://youtu.be/fE2h3lGlOsk
Itzys so freaking cool, I love their Japanese stuff. https://youtu.be/krzf1hkFAZA
. Ughhhh they're so COOL you guys... I'm gonna make music with everybody once I figure something, anything out. All I need is anything. I'm just throwing crap at the wall until something sticks. Like bruh human beings want to argue with me. It's like alright lil fella you know what im saying? Anyways, yo, voltage.
Man, ryujin is so cool. I'm https://youtu.be/XA2YEHn-A8Q
by the way. I'm prescribed a couple of things for my "bipolar" that I have to take if I want to see my daughter... it was a mess, it was all blown way out of proportion, but I was acting super whack. I definitely had like a pretty darn whack phase. Thank goodness I'm all better, right you guys? Haha, ignore me bro. https://youtu.be/3ymwOvzhwHs https://youtu.be/srK7Vj5p9Tg
....... https://youtu.be/N5wzkQvzp4c https://youtu.be/R1-BTf3_Mys
ooooo I forgot about this one... nice.
Man I forgot how freaking fire aoa was, I haven't listened to them in forever. Gotta do at least one more aoa song. https://youtu.be/q6f-LLM1H6U https://youtu.be/cDfr9mkJE5k
And last but not least, to wrap things up, just some of like the freaking queens man. Some real ogs. Representing Forest Nation all across the world. https://youtu.be/qsWl1--Niyg
Now, at this point, I think we can all agree, pretty wholeheartedly, that I am indeed, completely https://youtu.be/1nCLBTmjJBY
, and everybody here https://youtu.be/D_F9HUTYnl0's
me; but you guys, just relax: all I'm trying to do is start a https://youtu.be/Z6FPJOgfCkc
with a whole lot of https://youtu.be/jG1cIlM1juw
and I just think it's a good idea for us to work together so we can take down https://youtu.be/Dww9UjJ4Dt8
or whatever. But I'm insane, so don't listen to me. Smile and wave boys, smile and wave.
This ones pretty dope. I thought about linking a 3 hour video as a joke but like, meh. https://youtu.be/4DTkTJPtDZI https://youtu.be/SdzLl-XpJt0 https://youtu.be/Qpf26PtBXgo
man, what a great song. Dang it's late. https://youtu.be/nVCubhQ454c
what are you doing is this a pizza party at breakfast why does the room look like that I don't understand the lighting here and why God why ugh but like, you know, literally everything else. I just hate eating i think eating is so gross. You don't have to eat in heaven, I never eat. That's what some moron would say, i bet. Some moron thats not me, you can bet your socks on that, sister.
Yooooooo this ones suuuchh a bop... oh My gosh I can't wait. Auto correct lmao(🤥). Here here, here
Yo I'm sorry what is going on at these parties, what are these little party favor bike horns that I'm hearing, you're a bunch of like well wait, no wait dang it, am I on the side of maturity or immaturity? Dang it, uh... I guess it is pretty whimsical. I just feel like we'd have a better time in my balloon slash casino.
Dang that song's bad, but bad like guac. Lil Pablo got another something sprucial here for ya, Kings, Queens, whatever everybody else is calling themselves. https://youtu.be/6pA_Tou-DPI
did anybody else black out at :35. Don't even listen to this one honestly. It can go either way.
This one tho, this is a vibe https://youtu.be/NgxJIFNiT08
Man, Lunas voice is crazy. 2:20 I always lose my cool. She's got a solo song that's dope let me see if I can find it, I don't remember what it's called.
such a freaking vibe you guys, absolute astral stardust energy vibes over here my guy. Ariana's like a white Luna, you know what im saying? Check this one out https://youtu.be/iv-8-EgPEY0
Hawahawahnggg, man, that one slaps so hard. It hits it where it's going, it's like, mm, dang it's just so good. This next one is pretty sick too. Choa, she was one of AOAs main vocalists before they imploded on themselves. Another vibe https://youtu.be/G9zL-A78oRg
. And if you have a problem with anything in this one, I can show you a better one if you'd like. It's absolutely the most terrifying thing I think I've ever seen. Dude showed it to me that came over. Not even gonna say, because I don't want you hearing about it from me. If you've seen it maybe you know, I dunno, I'd never seen anything like it. Completely disgusting. So guess that's a point for him.
Ah man, that song's so nice. Some parts of the video are kind of freaky I think... like the floating dolls and stuff... oiji boards or whatever have never bothered me for other people... they creep me out tho dude, bet your ass I'm not trying it lol I don't wanna know dude, keep it on your own screen you know what I mean? Play your own hand, nerd. Like I need some dumb spirit messing with my head. Anyways, what's next. Yo fx is so good you guys. https://youtu.be/4j7Umwfx60Q
Alright you guys, one more, it's crazy late; I'm sorry about all this, I know this is a super strange post: you can just not do anything about it. It doesn't matter. I'm just chilling anyways. Are you guys chill? https://youtu.be/px2Q47O0_eE
Well you guys, that's a wrap, thanks for coming out, if you did come out, we had a great show, had a great time with you all here. I hope you enjoyed. Goodnight. Or morning. Sweet dreams. Or have a good day. If I had a dog I'd be the best owner. That's actually not true, that's why I don't have a dog. People aren't dogs. You get it. Nite. Luh u bbs. 😘😘 🤙🤙
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2023.06.04 09:57 Ill-Ad5218 Importance of decarboxylation - Cannabinoids in Raw Cannabis vs Decarbed Product - Benefits & Differences Between Cannabinoids Exsisting in Natrual Form vs. Decarboxylized Cannabinoids
Decarboxylation is a very important step in the process of making a cannabis concentrate. In short and blunt lamens terms decarboxylation is heating of cannabis to activate the appropriate cannabinoids. Heat and cold are the Extraction Technicians best friend, when controlled for. THCa is the naturally occurring form of THC exsisting in raw cannabis form where as THC is not present in raw cannabis. THCa is tetrahydracannabinolic acid, THC being the former word less acid, Tetrahydracannabinol.
The most important reason behind decarbing is the activation of the acid groups of compounds into their psychotropic active forms. While there are medicinal and therapeutic benefits to THCa and other Acid forms of cannabinoids, they are not therapeutic via combustion and can only be used to induce immediate medicinal therpaeutic effect in transdermal absorption, edibles, rso, tinctures etc. Though extended lomg term benefits of THCa have been suggested by studies. THCa is not psychotropic however. Very few psychoactive psychotropic benefits can be experienced from raw cannabis flower prior to decarboxylation.
Decaroxylation is one of the most important steps in cannabis concentrate processing, but is a part of cannabis use regarldess of How it is used. Decarboxylation is the addition of heat to raw cannabis or cannabis flower that has been curred. This torches the cannabis flower and upon reaching its flash point around 315° F approximately, the THCa loose a single carbon atom Carboxyl group 👉 (-COOH) while holding onto a hydrogen atom.
The atomic make up of THCa is 4 Oxygen, 30 Hydrodgen, and 22 Carbon atoms. We can see that decarbing causes the loss of 2 Oxygen atoms, 1 hydrogen, and 1 carbon atom. This is known as carbon dioxide, 1 carbon, di-2 oxide 1 hydrogen atom. Removal of said carboxyl group causes an approximately 12% reduction in THCa and converts to active THC.
This process can happen as I mentioned from combustion of plant material reaching the flash point of THC at approximately 320°F. It can also take place in a much more delicate manner whereby the THCa is converted to THC for use in products which will not undergo combustion. These are your edibles, tinctures, Rick Simpson Oil, topicals etc. These require that the THCa be ran through a decarboxylation process via lab techniques. However, the consumed compound in edibles and RSO is THC.
THCa does not bind to the receptors which are the main parts activating the endocannabinoid system, aka ECS. The ECS is a largely not understood homeostatic process involving the peropheral and nervous systems. THCa has a shape and size that prevents it from binding to CB1 or CB2 receptors. THC however has the key to both receptors.
There is not much study that has been conducted on THCa, largely thanks to the little amount of study done on cannabis. Meaning that which has been done has been on the seemingly most pertinent parts of the plant to understand given its possible recreational and inherent medicnal stance in the western World.
THCa is quite interesting in that studies have shown it to be directly beneficial to the reduction of pain by causing inhibition of COX-1 and Cox-2 enzymes. Both of said enzymes have potential to increase inflimation, pain, & fever. The interesting thing is the usefulness I have heard family and friends speak to, that being the application of topicals. I always wondered how in the world a topical would be beneficial for someone like my aunt, who smoke upwards of an ounce a week and uses pens and dabs. She finds the anti inflammirory and pain relieving properties of topical absorption of THCa extremely beneficial. She suffers a multitude of issues traditionally thought of to be treated by cannabis like gastroporesis, fibromyalgia, and inflimation associated pain.
The medicinal and recreational benefits of THC vs THCa differ darastically. THCa is not psychotropic, or as I often refer to it as psychoactively psychedelic. But has a multitude of medicnal applications through topical transdermal absorption, juicing of cannabis leaves, plant, and flower, rso, and other edibles.
THCa treats neurodegenrative diseases such as alzheimers disease, interesting given that CBD quells seizure activity in certain nerodivergent disorders. THCa is also anit spasmodic, meaning it stops muscele shaking in diseases like Parkinson disease. It also somewhat counterintuitive as an anti proliferative, considering the proliferative nature of sesquiterpenes. Said Anit proliferative attributes making it beneficial in prevention of prostate cancers.
THCa is also anti emetic to treat nausea vomiting etc and induce apetite & aid reduction in nausea. It is also analgesic in nature which means it is a pain killer. Finally like most compounds in cannabis THCa is an antioxidant that protects one from and reverses the damage caused by free radicals.
THC in addition to the plethora of medicinal applications of THCa, we have the medicinal viability of THC. Again none of this is accepted by the FDA and much comes from studies of cannabis from around the world as US peer reviewed research wasn't allowed in the US untill 2022. Atleast NOT RESEARCH without FDA manipulation forcing researchers to use cannabis from the University of Mississippi grown by government contractors to ensure low quality cannabis and sub par quality. This was the product available for study by peer reviewed researchers, ensuring FDAs plausible deniablilty while simultaneously actively controlling ability to produce results other than null. This backing down by the FDA is why we see so many synthetic cannabinoids hitting the market now. We're actually able to study the cannabis actually being used, though the restrictions are still a bit uncalled for.
The benefits of THC actually do differ from THCa. I didn't know this for the longest time. I always thought that THC was simply decarboxylIzed THCa. THC can assist with the treatment of opioid addiction, ya know, the way addicts who've suffered from the disease for years have suggested that the plant helps. For decades individuals on methadone maintainence treatment or another form of medicated assisted Treatment, aka MAT like suboxone, subtuex, or sublicaid which are all partial opioid agonists, save methadone as it is a full agonist. The Marijuana is said to dissuade the desire for reward seeking by allowing a less intense non addictive reward to Be given to the brain via THC.
Studies have actually shown a statistically significant difference in completion of opioid maintainence programs and relapse therein or total relapse correlated to THC use. This use is said to be decreasing desire to activate that 'burnt-in' reward system pathway. Essentially yes it let's the patient get high without axtivating those addictive pathways. This is supported by studies like the one I often discuss regarding injection of Beta Myrcene in Mice. Interestingly a study performed on Beta myrcene outside of cannabis, subcutaneous and intra peritoneal injection of cannabis derived beta myrcene led to analgesia comparable to prescription opiates.
The amazing find imo is that while it produced similar analgesic effects, it took an unknown pathway which caused analgesia but didn't exhibit the addictive properties of opioid Mu receptor activation. The studies insinuate both the application and medicinal viability of myrcene outside and likely within the whole of cannabis. Remember the whole is more than sum of its parts. AS well as the fact that THERE maybe isn't much receptor activation leadiNg to addictive properties, but RATHER, the pathway to the mu receptor causes the addictive properties.
THC has also been shown to have a strong Correlation to increased Metabolic output, which has a multitude of health benefits that most certainly don't abIDE by THE social niceties of todayS society. Cannabis use can produce THC benefit can lessen possibility of diet related obesity. The THC has actually been shown to be correlated with decrease in Body Mass Index as outdated as the BMI is said to be in modern culture. In addition THC has been correlated to A decrease in likliehood of diet associated diabetes.
THC also exhibits the characteristic of encouraging Vasodialation which is how the pressure in the eyes is releived for Glaucoma patients. Vasodiallation is the diallation of blood vessels, aka opening them up. This causes a decrease in blood pressure. However, strains with potent beta myrcene levels can effect the way in which the THC works. When THC is used with Beta caryophyllene in that form, not trans caryophyllene which is the most common form of beta caryophyllene and myrcene together, the THC enhances sedative effects in the potency of the onset brought on by beta caryophyllene sedation enhanced via myrcene.
Myrcene alone causes proliferation of THC across the blood brain n barrier leading to imcreased absorption of THC and increased activation of the CB1 receptors. This increases the psychotropic ability of the cannabis. THC potency can also be controlled with the application of various combinations of terpenes, namely related to beta caryophyllene and beta myrcene.
For example, that intensification of cb1 receptor activity can be quelled using the dietary nature of the dietary cannabinoid Beta Caryophyllene, by ingesting small amounts of black pepper cernals. These are high in Beta caryophyllene and as it is also a dietary cannabinoid meaning it can enter the endocsnnabnoid system througj the stomach and interacts with cannabis compounds active in the ECS. This calms the psychotropic Intensity calming paranoia & anxiety.
What is interesting and leads to deep sometimes heated discussion is that THC is also anxiolytic. Obviously heated given the intensification of THC via myrcene in a sativa lacking beta or trans caryophyllene. THCa is shown in studies in 2017 to be a more effective anti inflammitory than CBD when treating certain gastrointestinal disorders, specifically Irritable bowel syndrome, chrons disease, and ulcerative colitis.
So what does it mean when you see a small amount of THC in the product but higher levels of THCa? That ofcourse is a traditional confirmation of analysis.
First, it is very possible that the confirmation of analysis testing if using gas Chrometography that the THC may be underestimated, making for a more potent product than labeled....though these differences would be so Minute they likely wouldn't be noted by a person using the product. Maybe someone sensitive to THC.
Ever notice how there is typically some level of THC usually below 1% while your THCa tests around 79% or 78%. When testing cannabis products, when using Gas Chrometography the amount of THCa that converts to THC is 70%, but the THCa is not measurable using this method due to the temperature decearboxylizing the THCa to its psychotropic form.
Gas Chrometography combusts the material into a gassesous form and runs this gas through filtration which is able to measure the compound levels. I Showed below a picture diagram showing these systems. Because this is the "decarbed" product meaning heat was applied to convert the tetrahydracannabinolic acid. The THC is all that can be measured using this approach, not the THCa and only 70% of THCa is converted in this process. However knowing that 70% of THCa converts to THC we can sus out the levels of both using this approach.
It is impossible to know what that initial amount of THCa was of which 70% gets converted. Cannabis confirmation of analysis testing is very complex and has many seeming double negatives and odd measuremnet standards. One of these as a good example is less than the limit of quantitation. This means that the compound is present but can't be measured in accurate levels.
Liquid chrometography is a secondary method used to produce the confirmation of analysis you find on most states cannabis Product, atleast for the medicinal cannabis products in my state. Liquid chrometography takes advantage of a universal formula used to determine the amount of THCa that gets converted to THC.
The Universal Mathematical formula is as follows.
THC TOTAL= (%THCa) X 0.877 + (%THC)
If we remember looking back, approximately 12% of THCa is lost in the extraction process, during decarboxylation. That approximates at 0.877 which is equivalent to 87.7%. 87.8 + 12 leaves 99.8%. I am not exactly certain about the .2% leftover. I will update when i do learn ablut this fact. When the carboxyl group is removed and hydrogen atom preserved a 12% reduction occurs in THCa and other active cannabinoids, those exsisiting as an acid naturally like CBGa are converted as well.
This is how the ACTUAL levels are measured in order to understand the real potnecy of the product your using. THCa for example require a temperature exposure of 220° F for 30-45 mins before decarbing begins. The key for some decarbing processes is to manipulate atmospheric pressures to lower the boiling points and flash points of cannabinoid temperatures in order to ensure the partial flashing over (that is decarbing) takes place but doesn't degrade the product. Control of atmospheric pressure is necessary so that terpenes are not evaporated as some terpnenes begin to flash over at right around 100°F. A rotovap is one way this is done for which there is a diagram below as well, showing the liquid bath and erlyn myer flask (flask with bulbous bottom). Or in a VTA wipe decarboxylationprocess. .
THCa decarbs at approximately 220° F and CBDa decarbs at approximately 245°F, exposure time being approximately 90 minutes. To keep terpenes from evaporating it is necessary to extend the length of time one runs decarbozylation process in order to lower the temperature. A chart exsists to show heat vs time and the relative output thereof i included below. According to my research the optimal temperature for THCa decarboxylation is between 252° & 293°F.
If you plan to exsist on the Recreational market as a processor of cannabis or as an individual processing your own cannabis, decarboxylation is absolutely necessary to compete with big indisytry and make cannabis product containing desired terpenes.
While decarbing can be done ignoring the evaporation of terpenes, which is why there is the issue of adding terpenes in some processing it is best to try to keep these terps especially if competing In a state where medicinal multi million dollar industry is operating.
FOLLOW UR NOSE 👃 WHERE THE TERPENES GOES.
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2023.06.04 09:56 IntroductionCalm787 Manga and anime pacing chart updated for volume 28.