Calcium nitrate reacts with sodium phosphate
2011.07.09 17:31 Spicer_MTL Reef Tank
A friendly place to discuss and show off all things saltwater aquarium related!
2014.03.25 06:45 Ghostbuster180 Chocolate Drink
Yoo-hoo is an American brand of chocolate beverage that was developed in New Jersey in 1926; it is manufactured by Dr. Pepper Snapple Group. This is a community dedicated to this drink.
2023.06.04 22:27 seaniepants Lung cavitation, hemoptysis diagnosed as Sarcoidosis
White male, 39 years old, 165 lbs,
In early 2022 I discovered I have a lung condition characterized by left lung cavitation, hemoptysis (20-30 times per year, often in mornings or after intercourse, a few teaspoons or a tablespoonful), and nodules. My right lung seems to be okay. My left lung has become much worse over these last 18 months. More urgently, I also had some (what felt like) near death experiences on October 26, 2022 and June 2, 2023 when my body went paralyzed, I coughed blood all over myself, and I fell to the floor becoming unconscious. I'm trying to find out if my diagnosis of sarcoidosis is accurate (my readings tell me it would have to be a very rare presentation to be sarcoid). The diagnosis was based on a wedge resection biopsy that was analyzed by Kaiser, University of Michigan, Cedars Sinai, and Mayo Clinic. It's worth noting that each pathology department did not make the same diagnosis, but there were shared characteristics in their analysis. Mostly they admitted to difficulty making a definitive diagnosis. I've been taking steroids since November 2022, but the June 2, 2023 incident makes me wonder if they are working. I'm very concerned with stopping the hemoptysis, cavitation, and syncope as soon as possible. I’m also very concerned with preserving my healthy right lung. I have a link to a Google Doc with tons of logs of events, details and CT videos
, but I'm not comfortable posting in public. If you are a doctor, please DM me and I will eagerly provide a link.
CT Scan from Oct Incident https://imgur.com/oiAplKj https://imgur.com/UpvqeFY https://imgur.com/VWnA6O8
----- Abnormal Tests
- Troponin (only on Oct 26, 2022 after unconscious incident…418 pg/mL, then later 7152, then 3674)
- TSH (low… 0.31 mcIU/mL)
- Normal Tests
- Bacteria cultures
- Fungal cultures
- Complete Blood Count
- White Blood Cell Differential
- C-Reactive Protein
- Nocardia Species Culture
- ANCA (C-ANCA)
- Glomerular Basement Membrane
- Thermoactinomyces Vulgaris
- Pigeon IGG
- Prothrombin Time
- Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
- Anti-Human Globulin (Coombs Test)
- Blood Urea Nitrogen
- Anaerobic Culture
- Urine Histoplasma Capsulatum Antibody
- Vitamin D
- B-Type Natriuretic Peptide
- Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus
- Hemoglobin and Hematocrit
- Vitamin B12
- Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
- Thyroperoxidase Antibody
- Ionized Calcium
- Angiotensin Converting Enzyme
- Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)
- Lipid Panel
submitted by seaniepants
to AskDocs [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 22:01 theskyisfalling1 Can you feed your Isopods Fluckers High-Calcium Cricket Diet?
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I have a about 1/4 of this Flucker's High-Calcium Cricket Diet left and I just ordered a different brand of cricket food from The Bio Dude that is supposed to be good for both Crickets, Millipedes and Isopods. Do you think the isopods will eat enjoy or benefit from this Flucker's stuff? I hate to waste it but my feeder crickets never really thrived on this brand of food. I would buy 500 pinhead crickets for my anole and even after 2 months the crickets had only grown to about 1/8" or 1/4" in size. So I don't if they just didn't like it or it was not very nutritious for the crickets. I usually feed my isopods supplemental brewers yeast, freeze dried meal worms and tropical fish flakes to go along with their leaf litter and rotten wood. But thought I might try some of this to just go ahead use it up. What do you folks think? submitted by theskyisfalling1 to isopods [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 21:54 WateringHorse Which Hanna Test Kits are Worth it? I can't read color charts very well...
I run mostly LPS with a couple SPS frags. I'm installing a RODI system Tuesday because I finally realized how many phosphates are in the dechlorinated tap water. My bad..
I want to switch from my random assortment of tests to Hanna because I just suck at reading colors.
What I'm thinking about getting: Nitrate high range +- 2ppm Phosphate ULR +-.02 or something I forget. But doesn't matter because 95% buying this one because I can't read the colors at all on these kits.
PH pocket tester. Just like a mechanical rod. BRS showed good reliable results.
I think I'm good on alkalinity magnesium and calcium as the salifert tests have been reliable and I am not too concerned with these as I don't have much SPS.
Any thoughts on this plan? Is it ignorant of me to not closely monitor the alkalinity magnesium and calcium? I do weekly 30% water changes so I can't imagine it'll be too out of wack.
Also I think once I get the RODI and make sure it's 0 tds, I won't really have issues moving forward with any of my parameters... The tap water for the last two years was weirdly fine but now I know my phosphates are WAY high and want to get that under control slowly... Around .75 on my current phosphates... The tap water itself was like .3 or .4 from the reading... Probably overfeeding a bit.
submitted by WateringHorse
to ReefTank [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 20:57 TheGreatPink Coral help
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I’ve been having this issue recently but some of my corals are turning brown and I’m not sure what causing it. My nitrates and phosphates are reading zero, alkalinity is 8 and calcium is very low (300-340 been trying to get it raised for weeks but I’m currently dosing 44 ml a day but it’s not budging) and magnesium is at a solid 1400 ppm. Light schedule hasn’t changed but I’m not seeing much improvement but what I’m finding strange is that only certain corals are being affected. A good portion of my acros are still bright and colorful. I have been noticing that my protein skimmer has been filling up much faster recently and I’m getting a ton of algae in the front of the tank that brushes off very easily. Could it be that I have too many nutrients in the water. Any help is appreciated. Sand is recently new so I’m aware there’s a ton of diatoms ( recovering reef from hurricanes Ian). submitted by TheGreatPink to ReefTank [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 20:32 JustAGreenDreamer Apple Walnut Oatmeal cookies. I substituted chopped dried apples for the raisins in the recipe.
2023.06.04 20:21 LightenUpShapeUp New pool owner, green pool - Help!
Hi! We bought a house with an in-ground pool, 30,000 gallons. We’ve never owned a pool before.
I’ve been following the instructions of our local pool store and getting our water tested regularly. Algae is growing all over and it’s green as a bean.
We have a dolphin pool cleaner but it doesn’t seem to clean the algae even though it scrubs the walls etc.
Here are our levels:
Free chlorine: 9.44ppm Total Chorine: 9:44ppm Combined chlorine: 0 ppm pH: 7.9 Alkalinity:120ppm Adjusted alkalinity: 104ppm Calcium Hardness: 149 ppm Cyanuric acid: 55ppm Total Iron: 0 ppm Copper: 0.1ppm Phosphate 632 ppb
How can we get rid of the green stuff? Thanks!
submitted by LightenUpShapeUp
to pools [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 19:53 Merrickk Sunscreen for hairless dog?
When we can't avoid the sun is Anthelios Melt-In Milk Sunscreen SPF 60 safe to use on large areas of our hairless dogs skin? https://www.laroche-posay.us/shop-by-concern/product-line/anthelios/anthelios-melt-in-milk-sunscreen-spf-60-antheliosmeltinmilk.html#tab=ingredients
AVOBENZONE 3% • HOMOSALATE 10% • OCTISALATE 5% • OCTOCRYLENE 7% WATER • STYRENE/ACRYLATES COPOLYMER • DIMETHICONE • POLYMETHYLSILSESQUIOXANE • BUTYLOCTYL SALICYLATE • GLYCERIN • ALCOHOL DENAT. • POLY C10-30 ALKYL ACRYLATE • CAPRYLYL METHICONE • TRISILOXANE • ACRYLATES/DIMETHICONE COPOLYMER • DIETHYLHEXYL SYRINGYLIDENEMALONATE • PEG-100 STEARATE • GLYCERYL STEARATE • PHENOXYETHANOL • POTASSIUM CETYL PHOSPHATE • PROPYLENE GLYCOL • CAPRYLYL GLYCOL • PEG-8 LAURATE • ACRYLATES/C10-30 ALKYL ACRYLATE CROSSPOLYMER • TRIETHANOLAMINE • TOCOPHEROL • INULIN LAURYL CARBAMATE • DISODIUM EDTA • P-ANISIC ACID • CAPRYLIC/CAPRIC TRIGLYCERIDE • XANTHAN GUM • CASSIA ALATA LEAF EXTRACT • MALTODEXTRIN • SODIUM DODECYLBENZENESULFONATE
If this is not a good option are there any resources available to the public that could help me find a dog safe human sunscreen? Background
Age: 3 years old
Sex/Neuter status: Neutered male
Breed: American Hairless Terrier
Body weight: 20 lbs
History: Risk of sunburn from lack of hair
Clinical signs: Red skin
Your general location: Pennsylvania USA
Links to any test results, X-rays, vet reports etc. that you have: N/A
We have asked multiple vets for sunscreen recommendations but it's not an area they are familiar with, since most of their patients are well protected by hair.
We tried several titanium dioxide based sunscreens, but they are thick, sticky, and difficult to wash off. There was some concern that the thick coconut oil based formulas were aggravating our dogs skin issues. I'm also concerned about their effectiveness because titanium dioxide alone does not offer great coverage of the UV spectrum.
We tried epi pet sunscreen, but found it to be way too heavily scented.
Guidelines I referred to when looking for a sunscreen: ASPCA article (https://www.aspca.org/news/pets-and-sunscreen-dont-get-burned-myths
) AKC article (https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/do-dogs-need-sunscreen/
Criteria: - sold in the USA - at least SPF 30 - free of: zinc, PABA, and fragrance - low in salicylates? (I was not able to find any information on what is considered a low concentration for dogs)
Products we have tried: - Dermoscent sunfree: Aqua, Titanium dioxide, Alumina, Stearic acid, Sorbitan oleate, Caprylic/capric triglyceride, Glycerin, candelilla cera (candelilla vegetal wax), Magnesium stearate, Tocopheryl acetate. - Dr zoo: Purified Water, Titanium Dioxide, Tocopherol (Vitamin E), Coco-Caprylate (coconut based cleanser) Triglyceride (Fractionated Coconut oil) Glyceryl Stearate, Cetearyl Alcohol (Plant Emulsifier), Piroctone Olamine, Naringin (Bittering Agent from Orange Peel), Dicaprylyl Carbonate (Emollient Ingredient), Aluminium Stearate (Emulsifier), Hop Extract - California baby super sensitive: Titanium dioxide 12% Inactive ingredients: Water, isoamyl laurate, coco-ca-prylate, calendula officinalis extract (calendula), viola tricolor extract (pansy), polyglyceryl-2 dipolyhydroxystearate, euphorbia cerifera (candelilla) wax, glyceryl starch, carthamus tinctorius (safflower) oleosomes, polyglyceryl-3 diisostearate, levulinic acid, glycerin, tapioca starch, rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) leaf extract, cocos nucifera (coconut) oil, squalane, magnesium stearate, p-anisic acid, allantoin, panthenol. - Epi pet: Ethylhexl Methoxycinnamate (Sunscreen Octyl Salicylate (Sunscreen) Homosalate (Sunscreen) Benzophenone-3 (Sunscreen) Alcohol Denaturated (Disinfectant, Grease Cutter) Aqua (Water) Ethyllhexyl Salicylate (Sunscreen + Solubilizer) C-12-15 Alkyl Benzoate (Emulsifier - provides the "good skin feel") Acrylates/Octylacrylamide Copolymer (Resin Barrier for Water Proofing) Tocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin-E, Antioxidant, Skin Conditioner, Skin Desensitizer) Parfume (Vanilla Fragrance)
Products we have not tried: - Lucky Pup SPF 40 Lotion: Water, Glycerin, Coconut Oil, Shea Butter, Emulsifying Wax (vegetable derived), Aloe Oil, Titanium Dioxide, Optiphen, Vitamin E. - Banana Boat Sun Protector Spray: SD Alcohol 40-B, Homosalate, Ethylhexyl Salicylate, Octocrylene, Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane, Butyloctyl, Salicylate, Acrylates,/Octylacrylamide Copolymer, Panthenol, Tocopherol, Fragrance, Stearoxytrimethylsilane, Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride, Glycerin
There are many fake sunscreen products aimed at dogs on the market, which do not contain any ingredients that offer significant SPF protection. It's extremely frustrating.
submitted by Merrickk
to AskVet [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 19:45 LordLorck Please judge my electrolyte fizzy tablets... Judge them harshly.
TLDR: Will these ingredients break fast, or are they bad to consume in other ways? I am trying to lose weight, build muscle and I'm conscious of my gut microbiome (I know some additives can mess with this). Thanks :)
Energy: 0 kcal
Vit C: 40mg
Guarana extract: 50mg
Ginseng extract: 50mg
Ingredient list (I'll highlight the ingredients I'm most skeptical about):
Citric acid, sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride, magnesium carbonate, thickener (sorbitol), potassium bicarbonate, calcium bicarbonate, l-ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol, sweetener (cyclamate), colour (beetroot extract), thickener (polyethylene glycole), nacine, d-pantonetate, calcium, sweetener (saccharin), cyanocobalamin (B12), pyridoxine, pteroylmonoglutamic acid, d-biotin.
I have these electrolyte fizzy tablets that I bought from a Norwegian site a year ago (they're in these tubes, and I probably have like 30 tubes left x 20 tablets pr tube). They are super practical, just pop open the lid, take two out and add them to my water bottle after drinking my coffee when I'm fasting. However, after watching some youtube videos about nutrition, additives, sweeteners etc. lately I've become skeptical of whether they are actually good for me or not. If they're not, fuck em, I'll throw them all out in a heartbeat and just mix my own. But if they're alright, they are super convenient and I already have a ton of them.
I usually take two of them in a 24 oz. water bottle and chug it down. Even though it says on the tin 0 kcal, 0 fat, 0 carbs, 0 proteins, could this break my fast? And what about these sweeteners? I know cyclamate has been banned in some countries because of a link to cancer, but I read that the study was crap (i.e. they fed rats the cyclamate equivalent of like 500 soda cans or something all at once, and eyy they got cancer whaddayaknow).
Any wise words and perspectives are greatly appreciated :)
submitted by LordLorck
to intermittentfasting [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 19:27 SirDirkaDirka PSA- Too clean water can cause algea
TLDR: 6 month old mixed reef. Zero nitrates, caused green hair algea.
Full disclosure, I had reeftanks for about 15 years, worked in a lfs, commercial maintenance etc. Been out of the hobby for about 10 years. Setup a new tank about 6mo ago. My first time using dry rocks.
Tank is a 25 cube with 5g sump, no skimmer, refugium, carbon and reef diaper. Livestock is 3 fish, 15+ corals. Weekly 25 - 30% water changes using RedSea blue bucket.
For the last 2 months I've had horrible green hair algea. Chalked it up to 'the ugly phase' Fought it weekly with manual removal, gfo, water changes, pods. CuC etc. Parameters looked great (I thought). Nothing worked. Corals were ok, but not growing.
Finally dumped my ego and asked my lfs. He clued me in that my water was too clean. Shut the lights off for 3 days, added a few large turbo snails and a pencil urchin. Started feeding 3xdaily, added neoNitro.
Boom, tank is glorious 1 week later. Almost zero gha, zoas are going like mad.
My old ideas of running SPS tanks with 0 nitrate and 0 phosphate weren't helpful. Now at 10 nitrate and .01 phosphate and things look better.
submitted by SirDirkaDirka
to ReefTank [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 18:55 butterela 10 Benefits of Peanut Butter for Healthy Healthy Life
Peanut Butter contains protein and good fats which helps boost energy, prevent heart, and improve muscle growth, and strong bone density. It contained various types of essential nutrients required by the body. It is a natural source of many nutrients that can fulfill your daily need for nutrition.
· Calories - 188 kcal
· Protein- 7.03 g
· saturated fats- 3.05 g
· Calcium – 17 mg
· Carbohydrates- 7.67 g
· Fats- 8 g
· Fibre- 2 g
· Magnesium – 57 mg
· Potassium – 189 mg
· Sodium – 152 mg
· Phospurus – 157 mg
1) It is calorie-dense. However, most of the calories are part from unsaturated fats.
2) Zinc in nuts reduces age-related diseases and boosts the immune system.
3) Peanut butter contains phosphorus, It helps in muscle contraction and keeps bones strong.
4) It contains Minerals, Vitamins, Protein, fiber, calcium, fats, calories, sodium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Magnesium, and many more nutrients.
5) It is gluten-free, with Lower cholesterol, Natural ingredients, plant-based protein, and Vegan.
1. High Sources of Protein: Peanut Butter
is a high source of protein. Which can help you to fulfill your daily need for protein. It contains plant-based protein. Which was natural & good for your body.
2. Healthy Fats:
One serving has 16gm fat, and ¾ of its part has unsaturated fat. It contains healthy fats which are good for your health
3. Source of Vitamins and minerals:
It has vitamins B, E, B6, B12, and anti-oxidant properties. It includes many more vitamins which are needed for your body. Which can boost your immunity.
4. Sources of Vitamin B6 & B12:
This is a good source of vitamins. It contains vitamins B, B6, B12, and C together with zinc, and folic acid.
The potassium content in peanut butter can boost your energy or gives you energy for the whole day. this can be good for growing or improving your muscle strength.
Ø Health benefits of peanut butter:
1) Improves Muscle Growth:
It has a high source of plant-based protein. It can improve your muscle growth and helps to make your muscle strong & attractive.
2) Reduce the risk of diabetes:
The research can says you reduce diabetes risk by 30% with 1-2 tablespoons of regular consumption.
3) Improve Heart Health:
This is high in nutrients and calories. But, it does not contain trans fat. This can helps you to reduce cholesterol in your body. And helps for improves your heart functions.
4) Make Bones Strong:
It’s rich in calcium and magnesium, which can be needed for strong bones. This is a natural & tasty food
for kids to develop & make bones strong at an early age.
5) Smooth Digestion:
It was content fiber. Which can help you improves your digestive function. It is the best natural food for improving your digestive system.
This includes all nutrients which can be needed to build your body or muscle. Protein, Calcium, Fiber, Vitamins, Minerals, and many more nutrients in peanut butter
helps you with bodybuilding.
Ø Beauty benefits:
1. Healthy Skin:
Peanuts contain potassium, magnesium, antioxidants, good fats, and fiber. It also has vitamin E and B12, which can perfectly nourish your skin.
2. Protect your skin and hair:
Nuts have biotin, a B vitamin. These beans also have vitamin E which nourishes and protects the skin from damaging UV rays.
submitted by butterela
to u/butterela [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 18:42 Charlea1776 Alkalinity buffer
I have been using calcium clay mixed with baking soda for my alkalinity buffer. Recently we have had strong winds and many bird visitors bringing floating algae regularly. My ph this way, usually sits at 8-8.2. The fast growth of floating algae is spiking my ph to 8.4-8.8. I would like to try to use a buffer agent designed not to have an effect on ph (obviously they would all bring up low phbut mine is 7.8-8 from the tap after off gassing.
I found Fritz pimd alkalinity booster and was wondering if anyone has heard of or used it?
Or what do you do to keep kh up? I am basically having to add baking soda every other day and clay 2 x a week to get it to stay stable. There has to be a longer lasting solution that doesn't leave my fish in water above 8.5! Plus, if I am late by even a few hours as ibusy in the am and doingit in the afternoon. , they can get a swing that is as much as .6 day to night! I have a UV clarifier that will clear it up and it got so bad from a 10 day immune booster treatment where it had to be off after having to treat the pond for flukes and fungus. That treatment nuked the little bit of algae in those 3 days, but the floating stuff grew with fury for the last 8 (13 days total with it off).
I'm at my wits end with daily this and that and just want to get back to weekly maintenance. I also think my kh strips went bad so I am waiting on liquid drops. It's saying my kh is 160/180 as color is near impossible to distinguish reliably, but that's impossible with the wide swings right? For 12 months, at that kh, my ph has been stable. I screwed up one major water change coming out of winter and had a .9/1.0 swing that caused the fish to get the parasites and fungus because they got weakened and we had a new migratory bird species visiting that I think brought the flukes.
Any advice from experience is appreciated!! So many conflicting statements. I am in the PNW and we have super clean water with low everything which is a blessing and a curse.
I usually do a 10% weekly change for 3000 gallons. Ammonia and nitrITE stay at 0. Nitrate is now varying between 5-10 ppm after removing a plant that was an issue.
Also have a bog filter in addition to standard skimmer + bottom drain to filtered weir with ribbon media for max surface area and a medium and fine pad to catch debris. I rinse the pads when I see debris in the water column starting. Which right now is every single day and they are full while the bottom of my pond is clean. It's the floating algae bits and probably string algae bits trying to find a place to land and grow. Those are the two we have constant battles with.
The pond fish have been completely normal until this morning. They didn't come to eat! Granted fish are spawning so they're eating fish eggs, but my instinct is too much ph swing and strain. I think for our water, baking soda is just not effective enough.
Fritz buffer states it uses more than sodium bicarbonate to create a better buffer, but I am leery of products no one I know has used.
submitted by Charlea1776
to ponds [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 18:40 CranberryAcademic295 Crystal Spawns
When it comes to the three crystals (Di-Hydrogen, Condenced Carbon[Diamond?], and Sodium Nitrate) do they respawn, if so is it proximity based like runaway slime balls or time based, if proximity what distsnce is needed to respawn and if time how long? I ask because I wind up running out of my Di-Hydrogen stores frequently and if possible would like to set up an efficient farming location. The Jell trick can't seem to keep up with my demand
submitted by CranberryAcademic295
to NoMansSkyTheGame [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 17:13 Majora101 Does anyone know if this snack will provide the energy to help me wave my weapon around on Insta Live?
2023.06.04 16:48 facetime010101 Gerber Good Start Baby Formula Powder
| || | submitted by facetime010101 to ChoosyParents [link] [comments]
It's important to remember that these evaluations are guides to potential health concerns and not definitive measures of a product's safety or efficacy. They are based on individual ingredients rather than any negative effects the final product may have.
The way ingredients interact in a formulation can influence their potential impact, and the presence of a specific ingredient does not automatically equate to harm when used in a product. It's always crucial to do your own research, consider the product as a whole, and keep in mind that personal reactions can vary greatly. When making decisions about personal care products, it is recommended to consult with healthcare professionals.
: This baby formula appears well-rounded with a comprehensive blend of macronutrients, micronutrients, and beneficial additives such as 2'-O-Fucosyllactose, a human milk oligosaccharide, for gut health. However, the first ingredient, lactose, might not be suitable for babies with lactose intolerance. The formula also contains palm olein oil, which in some infants can cause harder stools and reduce calcium absorption. Moreover, Vitamin A Acetate is included - while essential, excessive consumption could lead to vitamin A toxicity, although this is unlikely given strict regulatory guidelines for infant formula. Lastly, soy is present, which could be a concern for babies with a soy allergy. It's always advisable to consult with a healthcare provider when choosing an infant formula to ensure it meets the child's specific needs.
Lactose, Vegetable Oils (Palm Olein, Soy, Coconut, High-Oleic Safflower Or High-Oleic Sunflower), Whey Protein Concentrate (Reduced In Minerals), Nonfat Dry Milk, And Less Than 2% Of: Soy Lecithin, Calcium Citrate, Potassium Citrate, Corn Maltodextrin, Potassium Chloride, 2'-O-Fucosyllactose, C. Cohnii Oil, M. Alpinaoil, Calcium Phosphate, Choline Bitartrate, Sodium Ascorbate, Sodium Chloride, Taurine, Magnesium Chloride, Potassium Hydroxide, Nucleotides (Cytidine 5'-Monophosphate, Disodium Uridine 5'-Monophosphate, Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate, Disodium Guanosine 5'-Monophosphate), Inositol, Ferrous Sulfate, Alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate, Mixed Tocopherols, Ascorbyl Palmitate, L-Histidine, Zinc Sulfate, Niacinamide, Calcium Pantothenate, B. Lactis Cultures, L-Carnitine, Copper Sulfate, Vitamin A Acetate, Riboflavin, Thiamine Mononitrate, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Manganese Sulfate, Citric Acid, Potassium Iodide, Folic Acid, Phylloquinone, Biotin, Sodium Selenate, Vitamin D3, Vitamin B12
Typical ingredients description and side effects
- Soy Lecithin
- Soy lecithin is a common ingredient found in various food products, including baby formulas. It is derived from soybean oil and is used as an emulsifier, helping to blend and stabilize the ingredients in the formula. Soy lecithin is generally considered safe for consumption, but like any food ingredient, it can have potential side effects or considerations.
- Potential Side Effects:
- Allergies or Sensitivities: Soy is one of the top food allergens, and some individuals may have allergies or sensitivities to soy products, including soy lecithin. Allergic reactions can vary in severity and may include symptoms such as hives, swelling, difficulty breathing, or digestive issues. If your baby has a known soy allergy or shows signs of an allergic reaction after consuming a baby formula containing soy lecithin, it is important to discontinue use and consult a healthcare professional.
- Digestive Sensitivities: Some individuals, including babies, may have digestive sensitivities to soy-based products. This can manifest as symptoms like gas, bloating, colic, or diarrhea. If your baby experiences any of these symptoms after consuming a baby formula containing soy lecithin, you may consider discussing alternative formulas with your pediatrician.
- EWG Skin Grade: 4
- Potassium Hydroxide
- Potassium Hydroxide is commonly used in the food industry as a pH regulator or a food stabilizer. It helps to maintain the acidity or alkalinity of food, which is important for flavor, preservation, and food safety. In baby formula, Potassium Hydroxide is used to adjust the pH to make it as close to human milk as possible, to ensure optimal digestion and nutrient absorption.
- Potential Side Effects:
- Irritation: Potassium hydroxide is known to be caustic, meaning it can cause irritation or burns if it comes into direct contact with the skin or eyes in its pure form. However, in food products like baby formula, it's used in very diluted quantities that are safe for consumption.
- Digestive Issues: If consumed in large amounts, potassium hydroxide could potentially cause digestive issues such as nausea or vomiting. However, the small amounts used in food products are unlikely to cause such effects.
- EWG Skin Grade: 5
- Ferrous Sulfate
- Ferrous sulfate is a type of iron supplement that's often added to baby formulas. Iron is an essential nutrient that's necessary for the production of hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. It's also worth noting that some infants may have difficulty absorbing iron from supplements like ferrous sulfate, which can potentially lead to issues such as iron deficiency anemia. However, most infants can absorb and utilize the iron in baby formula without issue.
- Potential Side Effects:
- Gastrointestinal Issues: These can include nausea, constipation, diarrhea, or stomach upset.
- Iron Toxicity: Though very rare and typically associated with accidental ingestion of iron supplements, iron toxicity can be serious, causing symptoms like dizziness, rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing, fever, and in severe cases, can lead to organ damage.
- Interference with Nutrient Absorption: Excessive iron can interfere with the absorption of other nutrients, such as zinc.
- EWG Skin Grade: 4
- Tocopheryl Acetate
- Tocopheryl Acetate is a form of vitamin E that is often added to baby formula, skincare products, and various other products. Vitamin E is an essential nutrient known for its antioxidant properties. It plays a crucial role in protecting cells from damage, supporting immune function, and promoting healthy skin and eyes. In the context of baby formula, tocopheryl acetate is generally safe and unlikely to cause side effects when consumed at levels that are within the recommended dietary allowances for infants. However, like any nutrient, it could potentially cause side effects if consumed excessively.
- Potential Side Effects:
- Bleeding: Vitamin E has mild anticoagulant properties, meaning it can prevent blood clots. While this is typically a good thing, in large amounts, it could potentially increase the risk of bleeding.
- Nausea, Diarrhea, Stomach Cramps: Some people may experience digestive upset from consuming too much vitamin E.
- Rash: Some individuals may have a skin reaction to topical use of tocopheryl acetate, though this is less relevant for its presence in baby formula
- EWG Skin Grade: 3
- Zinc Sulfate
- Zinc sulfate is a mineral that is frequently used in dietary supplements and baby formulas. Zinc is an essential nutrient that supports various body functions, including immune function, protein synthesis, wound healing, DNA synthesis, and cell division. It's particularly important for babies as they grow and develop.
- Potential Side Effects:
- Gastrointestinal Issues: Excessive intake of zinc can cause gastrointestinal issues such as vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramps.
- Zinc Toxicity: While rare, severe overconsumption can lead to zinc toxicity, with symptoms including loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headaches. Long-term excessive intake could potentially interfere with the body's absorption of other essential minerals like copper and iron.
- EWG Skin Grade: 6
- Vitamin A Acetate
- Vitamin A Acetate, also known as retinyl acetate, is a form of vitamin A that's often added to food products, including infant formula, due to its essential role in supporting vision, the immune system, and overall growth and development. It's generally safe for use in such products, but as with any nutrient, too much can lead to adverse effects. It's important to note that these side effects are generally associated with excessive intake over a prolonged period, not normal dietary consumption.
- Potential Side Effects:
- Vitamin A Toxicity (Hypervitaminosis A): This can occur if an infant is given too much Vitamin A over a long period of time. Symptoms can include nausea, dizziness, blurred vision, and even hair loss in severe cases. However, it is extremely rare and typically associated with over-supplementation, not food sources.
- Birth Defects: Consuming extremely high levels of Vitamin A during pregnancy can potentially lead to birth defects. However, this is not relevant to baby formula but rather a concern for pregnant women.
- Interactions with other nutrients: High levels of Vitamin A can interfere with the absorption and utilization of other vitamins, such as Vitamin D and Vitamin K.
- EWG Skin Grade: 9
- Manganese Sulfate
- Manganese sulfate is a mineral that's often used in dietary supplements and food products, including baby formula. Manganese is an essential nutrient that supports many body functions, including bone development, metabolism, and brain function. As of my knowledge, manganese sulfate is generally considered safe in the quantities typically found in food and formula, but excessive intake can lead to adverse effects
- Potential Side Effects:
- Neurological Effects: High levels of manganese exposure have been associated with neurological issues, but this is generally associated with environmental exposure (like inhaling manganese dust), not dietary intake.
- Interference with Iron Absorption: Manganese can interfere with the absorption of iron. This is generally not a problem with the levels of manganese found in baby formula, but it could potentially be an issue with very high levels of intake.
- Digestive Issues: As with any mineral, consuming excessive amounts could potentially cause digestive issues like nausea or diarrhea.
- EWG Skin Grade: 3
- Phylloquinone is another name for Vitamin K1, an essential nutrient that plays a critical role in the body's blood clotting process. It's naturally found in foods like leafy green vegetables, and it's often added to infant formulas to ensure babies get an adequate amount of this nutrient. In the amounts typically found in infant formula, Phylloquinone is generally considered safe and side effects are rare. It's important to understand that these side effects are usually associated with very high doses of the vitamin, typically from supplementation, and not from dietary intake like in baby formula.
- Potential Side Effects:
- Allergic Reactions: Some people may be allergic to Phylloquinone. Symptoms can include difficulty breathing, rash, itching, swelling, severe dizziness, or trouble breathing. However, such reactions are extremely rare.
- Interference with Blood-Thinning Medications: High doses of Vitamin K can interfere with the effectiveness of blood-thinning medications. This is not typically a concern for infants consuming baby formula but may be relevant in certain medical conditions.
- Hemolytic Anemia or Jaundice in Newborns: Extremely high doses of Vitamin K can cause a condition called hemolytic anemia or jaundice in newborns, especially those with a condition called G6PD deficiency. However, the amount of Vitamin K in infant formula is well below the level that could cause this condition.
- EWG Skin Grade: 4
- Sodium Selenate
- Sodium selenate is a form of selenium, an essential trace mineral necessary for many bodily functions. Selenium is important for DNA synthesis, reproduction, metabolism of thyroid hormones, and protection against oxidative damage and infection, among other things. For infants, selenium is crucial for normal growth and development.
- Potential Side Effects:
- Selenosis: Selenium can have adverse effects if consumed in excess. Selenium toxicity can lead to a condition called selenosis, which can cause symptoms such as hair loss, gastrointestinal upset, fatigue, irritability, and nerve damage.
- Digestive Issues: In large amounts, selenium might cause digestive issues like nausea or diarrhea.
- Skin Rash: In some cases, overconsumption of selenium can lead to skin rashes.
- EWG Skin Grade: 8
The grading system used by EWG in the Skin Deep database is as follows:
1 to 2: Low hazard
3 to 6: Moderate hazard
7 to 10: High hazard
2023.06.04 16:44 SmallHandSipper The most controversial drink on the market?
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Day 31/365: Having a different energy drink every day for a year submitted by SmallHandSipper to energydrinks [link] [comments]
Bang - Whole Lotta Chocolata
Review: What is going on here and how did they get the chocolate flavoring while still keeping it 0 calories?
Those are the questions I asked myself while taking my first sips. Sadly, those first sips were the only enjoyable ones, and the flavor soon became intolerable. It tastes like a very ~thin~ and watered down chocolate peanut butter milkshake. Icky fr‼️
Calories: 0 Sweetener: Sucralose Sodium: 40mg (2% Daily Value)
2023.06.04 16:13 WritingDrakon (EODAT Ch.5 REPOST) brewing legacies, and oversized weapons
(Hey everyone! Finally out of the shadow realm! Im reposting chapter five here as it got wiped last time, 6 is still percolating away in my head, but in the mean time, enjoy! Comments are appreciated!)
4-LOM rolled up to the holotable, the aging shipbuilder looking over the various fleet and division commanders.
4-LOM was an old Mk1 astro robot, his main body was a sphere, with four mechanical arms extending from his body, two large and bulky, and the other two smaller, more nimble and accurate, more dexterous, with a cylindrical lower body leading down to his treads, which were angular, tank like in shape, designed for heavy lifting. His head was flat, with a duo of square optics, a set of welding shields flipped up, ready to flip down when and where needed. His backpack was open, with tools sticking out, ready to be grabbed and used.
Looking around, he noted that the Saurians had their Admiral, a middle age Rox, their massive, tyrannasauric form still managing to tower over most of the others, even in holo, while Serano stood next to him. Nearby, Hota sat, nursing a coffee, rubbing his head, while one of the chief science officers hologram glanced at him nervously.
Another door entered, and a Mk12 frame entered, standing at the table. At first glance, the frame looked pristine, but 4-LOM wasn't fooled. He wasn't a shipwright for nothing, and he could see the pitting under the paint where plasma weaponry had uselessly splashed off, taking with it little layers of metal with it. Despite how new the frame looked, it was clear it had seen some action, recently as well, judging by the fresh coat of paint.
More holograms of fleet officials, and the bridges, or representations of their ships, flickered in above their shoulders. Serano looked like he had an old sailing ship floated there idly, a representation of the Enterprise. Some had wasps, while one captain had a cartoonish Barbus fish, with an old style white sailors cap and a belt of dynamite.
And then a small black hole flickered into view in front of his faceplate, making him roll back with a start. Getting a good look at the now pulsing black hole, he seemed to frown, one of his welding shields rising higher to simulate a eyebrow raise….. "Horizon? Is that you, little lass?" He said, with a thick, Scottish accent as his other shield rose up to join the other in shock.
The holographic black hole bobbed up and down in the air, two arms extending out from its corona and spun, as if to represent it, no, her, spinning in happiness. For a moment, 4-LOM was silent, before he began laughing, reaching up, even as his servo passed through the holo. "Ach, what I wouldn't give ta be in the Link with ye, lassie! I'm glad ye survived." He said, as the little ever hungry representation of the ship spun around him, before it shot off, floating near the Mk12, who looked at it.
The 12s head tilted more, as it listening to what the ship was saying, while 4-LOM felt a bit of possessiveness flair. Horizon was one of HIS creations, his and his wife's. Their ships were like children for them. Rolling over, he mentally began preparing a bit of what his wife would call the shovel talk, something they used to do with Captains that took on their vessels……
"Did you need something, Grandfather?" The machine said, domed head snapping to his, taking the wind out of his sails, and stare blankly at the taller, thinner machine.
Behind him, he heard Serano chuckle behind him, even as the Rox raised an eyeridge, while the Saline sat his mug down and placed his head in his hands.
"Grandfather- oh. I see…." He said, gaze turning flat as he gave a glare at Horizon. "I see the little gremlin is still able to make me short a fuse or two. Void knows Maria's hair turned white before she had to move bodies due to someone's antics." The little black hole pulsed sharply, as if squawking. "Would have appreciated a warning she made herself a captain…. Lassie, ye best be teaching him self preservation instincts." Catching the snort from the Rox and the sigh from Serano.
Slowly, his head turned around to face the two, one shield twitching, and finally saw Hota looking up with a flat look. "Too late on that one. I'll pass you the after action report later, AFTER the meeting." Serano said, hiding a smile. "If you want a first hand account, ask Hota. From what I understand, he had a front row seat for the Chaos the two caused."
She wasn't a little ship anymore, she wasnt- ah kriff it all. She was still his little lass. He'll talk with her later…preferably with Maria there…..after he grabbed his wrench and had a….. talk….. with whoever was their crew.
All the admirals and fleet commanders were soon in place, Asimov standing to the side, near the Admiral Serano, Horizons representation floating next to his head as his own panned about, looking at the assembled species. Several robotic ones, not Astro Robot series, called Glinch, looked at him curiously, while he picked out several different….Saurians, a few Roxes, several Trikes.
Several were pale, white skinned humans, bald, be they male or female. Clones, like himself, but with organic bodies, accompanied by nat-born humans, and several more advanced Astro Robot series units, these ones looking everything from near human, to large and bulky, armed with cannons, inbuilt missile launchers on their upper arms, and massive treads, or slimmer, almost skeletal ones with modules that could be swapped out at a moments notice.
"I appreciate ye all for coming on such short notice" 4-LOMs voice said, cutting over the gentle hubbub of the side conversations. "I had hoped that we wouldn't be facing them again, but here we are." The robot said as one of his smaller limbs tapes a command into the console, pulling up images of Everwatch stations current…condition. "Those of yeh from Federation space are more familar of the old stories, battle videos and the like. The Demons, as the Human Federation calls them, have been returned. It's only thanks to the work of Representative Hota that we have this information….. and had stumbled across an old Ace that had woken back up in time for this chaos." 4-LOM said, nodding to the Saline, getting the attention of his compatriots, who he shook his head to.
"Our opponents are equipped with biotech vessels, and are known for appropriating technology to forcibly integrate it with their own. Which means keep an eye out for a worse hodgepodge of weapons than a pirate vessel after its crew hits a pound of Spice and then gets drunk at a star port." 4-LOM said dryly, as various, old, images of the vessels and a few of the newer ones. "That being said, expect the sheer firepower jammed onto each of these ships to be on the higherside. However, they need long recharge periods, likely due to whatever power source used overloading, or the capacitor banks running dry and needing to recharge. Don't be fooled, they do have some form of biological armament, acid spitters, spike launchers, the works." He said, as images flicked up organic turrets, tentacles, and what looked like maws.
"As of right now, several of our larger vessels are being inspected and repaired, resupplied, and upgraded as needed. Several older vessels are being pulled out of mothball for the same reason. All civilian vessels are being drafted for emergency roles, receiving refit with hardware that will allow them to fight in a pinch, though their primary objective will be escorting transport ships and acting as emergency evacuation ships. We won't be expecting them to fight, but we need every ship we can get."
An image flickered into view of what amounted to the humans old museum of warships and deep space vessels, revealing it to be a hive of activity. Many other races had laughed at humanity for keeping their old vessels, rather than scrapping them, but now, now there was a reason why humanity had.
"Patrol fleets are to be at least one Saline Sensor ship, two to three Buckler class Trike Shield Bearers, one Rox Artillery ship, one Vohle capable human vessel, Two human PT ships, and three Raptor Swift claws." 4-LOM said, "these things aren't to be taken lightly. Sensors pick them up, call it in and engage. Stall for time if needed for reinforcements to arrive. Intercept fleets are to consist of five Trike Aegis class Shield Bearers, six Swift claws, one Rox supercarrier, three Rox artillery ships, two Saline Auxiliary ships, one Saline Medical cruiser, one Human Vohle Super-carrier, eight human PT ships, two Human Iowa class destroyers." The elderly bot belted out, making several Captains and admirals wince. Those weren't lightweight ships. The 'patrol' fleet could have been considered a planetary invasion force.
Before anyone could make any arguments or questions as to why the fleets were set to the Human classic of 'Maximum Overkill', and before any more ridiculous fleet deployments could be called out, a slightly panicking human sprinted into the room. "Sir! Confirmed hostile assault on Tisan-4" the human said, breathing heavily. "The Demons made planet fall, looks like a small invasion force that had left before the incursion field went up."
4-LOM stared….and then sighed. "Well, Caliburn had been itching for a fight." He sighed and placed a servo over his optics.
/-----------------------------------/ WARNING: Hostiles detected. Match confirmed; species D-65. Threat level:Apollyon. Combat systems:unlocked.
That was what appeared on the Colony Managers terminal as alarms screamed across the Colony, alerts screaming on PADDs, sirens spinning as bunkers opened up.
An aging Wargen bared his teeth as he rapidly tapped at his terminal, as the younger human clone stood grimly at her manager's terminal.
"Civilians are filling out the bunkers, tunneling charges are set and ready to clear escape routes." The elderly, wolf like Wargen said, his muzzle splitting into four as he spoke, one part vertical, the other horizontally. "Colonial militia are manning hard points and connecting to systems now."
"Understood." The Colony manager said and let out a long breath, before opening the PA system. "All hands, brace for Activation procedure. I repeat, all hands, brace for activation procedure." She said, before securing herself in on one of the chairs, even as the commander buckled himself in across from her, even as terminals all around them flickered and the building shuddered and shook, new lights came online all over.
"And the other races call our alliance insane for building the bunkers" The Wargen muttered under his breath as the command room became a flurry of activity, sensor teams working together in an attempt to get data on their opponents. "Our people are safe. That's what matters, commander." The clone said softly, looking at her long time friend, even as the hidden defense system of the Colony woke up.
Outside, the demonic army approached, on a slow, steady March, disgruntled at the lack of organics they had found to use. They needed biomass to fuel their war machine, to create their bases, their armies, their ships. And while they didn't care much about the sheer number of ships they lost during planet fall thanks to the orbital defenses, they needed to deal with the local defense computers. There had to be a way to broadcast an all clear signal and allow their other ships past.
Before them sat a large, fortified structure, looked like a massive cathedral, really. The irony was not lost on them as ports on the castle-like structure opened up, and began spitting metallic shells at them, exploding after punching through their infantry, leaving craters behind, destroying more of their forces.
The ground shook as their massive siege beast began forming from the splattered biomass, like some strange, oozing horror, slowly forming into a quadropodic creature.
The beast was mostly just a giant mouth in legs, with a long, worm like body lined with eyes, teeth, spikes, and tendrils, flinging said teeth at the structure.
Warlord Gistle ground his teeth as he stared at the cathedral as it held its own, his forces decimated by the attempted rain of metal. Said rain changed to one of scalding plasma as the castle changed tactics to try and burn the bodies to prevent them from forming additional, stronger units.
"Battle lord." Hissed one of the smaller battle chiefs said, as they stepped up next to Gistle. "The Seekers have not located where the miserable Frails have hidden themselves. Our efforts would be best put to entering the fortress ahead." The chief said, pointing at the massive fortress as the siege beast brushed off the weapons fire.
"No need, we will be inside soon en-" Came the guttural voice of the Warlord, before it was interrupted by a computerized voice, echoing out.
"THREAT ASSESSED. ASSUMING COMBAT MODE."
There was a rumble, everyone grabbing onto the stablest thing around them as the ground tore apart, the siege beast stumbling back, as the building tore up its own foundations as steam hissed out, and part of the building lifted up, and then slammed into the ground, and then the other side, slowly pulling itself up….and up…and up……
The structure wasn't a structure. Not any more. Towering over them, looking like a massive hunchback stood the cathedral, it's towers opening, revealing to be cowling around massive artillery cannons. It's arms, once covered with flat pillars, opened up to reveal a set rotating barrels, slowly spinning up, and a bulky duo of MAC batteries on the other arm. Sticking off the side of its upper arms were smaller hardpoints, each turret armed with four barrels, small and accurate, sniping ground units with horrifying accuracy, the soft metal shells ripping away to reveal their incendiary cargo held within steel mesh, allowing the coilguns to spit them out rapidly.
The head section looked like a sphere with three optics in a triangular formation, around a cannon that locked onto the siegebeast and whined, arcing brightly, before it fired, a bright flash seen as the cannon went off, it's round leaving behind a trail of fire as it raced through the air, punching through the beast, making it howl, and began trying to heal the injury that pierced it, ripping open a hole below it.
It's bipedal legs were thick, armored, and just as equally armed, it's lower legs armed with rotary cannons that spun, the lower pair foring a heavy stream of plasma, one barrel firing and then cooling as it spun, the others keeping the pace up, while above them, physical artillery was spat out, helping pierce armor for the plasma to scorch and burn to uselessness. More cannons sat on the sides and back of its legs in, taking aim at the surrounding armies, making sure to add on their screeches of rage.
Hanging off the underside of the platform that held the Cathederal sat more turrets, each swiveling around and adding to the chaos, their mini MAC armament chattering as they fired, picked a new target and fired again. On the top of the platform were AA cannons, taking aim and firing into the air, altering the timing of their rounds so that they acted as impromptu artillery, while more cannons, on four turrets, covered the monstrosities back, preventing them from sneaking up behind it, as if the cannons on the back of its legs weren't enough to cover it.
Warlord Gistle hissed in shock. The Frails had been LIVING in a Siege beast of their own!? Hidden partially underground, deceiving them to make it seem as if it was nothing more than a fortification!?
"Have all expendable units merge with our Siege beast, NOW! if the frails continue to pick our forces off one by one, they will never be able to reinforce our beast after they fall!" Gistle roared, even as around him the battle chiefs barked out the orders……..
The massive machine stared down at the hostile forces as they turned into a thick, biological slurry, short of the Demons themselves, and oozed towards the horror before it.
The monster seemed to absorb the substance on contact, growing larger and larger with each passing moment, howling and hissing.
He could feel his crew cursing in their heads, humans and otherwise, lighting the slurry up with plasmafire, burning some of it, but not enough. Caliburn agreed with them, as his Plasma getting cannon spun up, the five barrels glowing brightly, the heatsinks by the ends of the barrel glowing as the machine poured plasmafire from the barrels, searing into the beasts body, burning it up as it grew, stunting its growth heavily, and forcing it to consume more biomass to make heavy, chitenous armor, layers burning away under the assault.
Caliburn could feel the dust coming off as his gears spun, and he stepped forward, swinging the glowing arm as it cooled down, making the horror screech as he spun his upper body to add to the force of the blow, digging the glowing heating into the beast's face and knocking it back, buying time for his crew to deal with the horrific slurry around them, which still tried to fuse with the horror, chasing after it with a single minded determination.
As his upper body slowed down and he was facing forward again, he saw the beast setting up, snarling. His other arm came up, and he could feel his capacitors burning as he began firing his MAC arm at it, the massive, vehicle sized slugs punching into the beast, knocking it back farther, punching holes in the chitin it tried to grow as armor, making it hiss and move rapidly, trying to put distance between itself and the machine.
Unfortunately, the beast had the advantage in land speed, as it had four legs, while Caliburn only had two and lumbered slowly forward, his aging systems relishing the taste of combat after so long. And now he had far better weapons then a simple crane arm, like he had last time he fought a creature like this.
Because the beast had put distance between itself and him, it managed to absorb the last of the biomass, and began bounding forward, it's maw open, teeth spinning like some sort of Cuisinart….
A target he couldn't miss. His head cannon barked again, not as powerful as last time, but this time, he wasn't trying to rip it apart from the inside. The shell detonated on contact with the teeth, shredding them, tearing into the soft flesh within, making the beast howl and close its maw, it's chitin armor weathering the plasma splashing off, hardened to withstand the smaller weapons fire his crew spat at the creature.
His arms pulled their shrouding back around them, as he drew back and swung, hard, again using his body spinning to his advantage, striking the beast, the heavy weight of the heatsink and the weapon itself burying the shroud covered arm inside, the end opening up. Unfortunately, thanks to the partial shrouding, he wouldn't be able to spin his cannon, but all he needed was one shot inside it, and let it fly, ripping his arm out as it howled, smoke billowing from its new hole it tried rapidly to heal.
The tendrils it had tried to dig into his arm burned away as he kicked it up from below and began unloading both arms, fully unshrouded, the heat coming off both of them making steam hiss up into the air, as the beast took a heavy slug and then a plasma bolt, one after the other, deep into its stomach, sending it onto its back.
Loud popping sounds were heard as its limbs reoriented, allowing its former belly to become its back, the holes sealing slowly as it circled the walking cathedral, even as Caliburn scanned it, his upper body following its every movement. His command crew were breaking down every schematic and scan he gave them, working hard to figure out a way to kill the horror.
In the mean time, Caliburn and his crews would do their damndest to stall the beast and continue on their current plan. Burn it down, slowly.
He could feel his crews tracking the retreating demon forces, listening to the mental chatter within him as the artillery crews happily worked together to figure out their path, searching for the enemy command position, even as sensor crews watched as the rapidly approaching flood of biomass and machinery charged for them, some of the artillery crews already letting loose N-4 shells, the 'super-napalm', as the crews nicknamed them, impacting and exploding, burning into the biomass, unquenchable, even as the biomass attempted and failed to smother the burning substance, only serving to make it worse, melting the weaponry it carried with it.
The only reason why the crews could get away with it was because the biomass wasn't near the Bunkers exits or near infrastructure. Or Burnable items.
Command soon had a viable target, a sort of brain mass it had, separated throughout its body in a vain attempt to make sure it could still operate when a few of them were destroyed.
Several had been burned away by the plasma bolt going off inside of it, but many more remained, and it was attempting to make more/replace the burned away ones. They needed to eliminate the command signal….
Jubilation and grim satisfaction bloomed in his sensor and artillery crews, as he felt the mad scramble for bunker busting shells, before they were let loose into the air. Even as he blocked a tail strike from the beast and managed to crush its head under one foot, letting his landing engines ignite for the first time in decades to burn the creature more, his crews targeted the command bunker, shelling it with deadly accuracy, smoke rising from the hill they were tucked away behind in the distance, making Caliburn burn with satisfaction and praise for his crew.
Gistle ran as fast as his hooves could move him, teeth barred as he snarled.
Around him, their command temple shook and shuddered, veins bursting, cables arcing wildly as the biomass contracted involuntarily or simply sagged, turning to biomass.
"Warlord, they are heavily shelling our position, we won't be able to retreat at this rate!" Hissed one of the Battle Chiefs at his side, hissing in fear, even as he snarled at the Pitiful, compared to him, creature. "We won't be taking everyone, only the essentials. The Everlasting King must be notified of this development. King be damned, the frails took the time to prepare for our arrival again." He growled as he came out to a hanger area, and ran into a small, fast ship, even as the others ran into larger, bulkier, slower ships.
Soon, the chitin that served as the door opened, and they shot out, erratically flying, trying to avoid the artillery shells, and now AA fire joining the fray.
He kept close to his compatriots, using them as a living shield as he twisted the small vessel around, smirking as he dodged the fire while they took it..
They were almost to space, soon, they could tear a Gate and get the fleet-
Reality tore open above him as a massive ring shaped vessel pushed itself into real space, disgorging hundreds of smaller vessels, bearing down on their positions, others engaging the floating fleet around them with aggressive assault runs, the sudden appearance in the system allowing them to have the element of surprise.
Weapons fire began filling the space around f them, tearing at their vessels faster then they could repair them as little, frail vessels zipped in and out of line of fire faster then they could shoot, track, or react, unloading slugs, plasma, torpedoes in a flurry of activity before diving away, allowing their munitions to wreak havoc amongst them.
Already, the larger vessels were disabled before Gistle managed to sacrifice one, smirking as it warped, it's biomass fueling the Gate, as he flew through, hoping he was in friendlier territories, unaware of a sensor torpedo flying in behind him.
Down below, on the surface, Caliburn flung back his opponent again, arms blazing as he shelled it.
It was bigger then it had been, managing to absorb the biomass from the surviving landing ships and the remains of the command center they shelled out. It's armor was thicker, and was flinging out dozens, hundreds of calcium spikes, spitting its unknown energy weapons, only to splash off his shields, for the energy weapons, and his ar.or foe the calcium spikes, even as his weapons screeched.
The beast had holes all over its chitenous armor, from his shells punching in, or his artillery crews shelling the beast, his plasma following close behind as he sought to burn the creature out from the inside, going so far as to ram his plasma cannon inside and unload it, the rotating barrels helping tear it up from the inside as the heat sinks burned it.
Ships began dropping down from above, doing strafing runs, dropping smaller caliber explosives, distracting the beast as he tore another hole in it by spinning his upper body, one shrouded cannon arm striking the beast and ripping in, just as a gunship fired a Cleaner into it, just before it healed.
A burning flash of light, a horrific scream from the beast as it howled, body jerking as the explosive did its job…. Before it swung down, still alive, though just barely, it's armor shattering rather then buckling on the next strike from Caliburn, a facsimile of a uppercut, before the barrels let loose again, even as the plasma cannon dumped bolt after bolt into its lower body, searching for, burning the neural clusters as he found them.
The beast wrenched itself away from his grasp, snarling as it looked at him, the beast snarling as it tried to heal from the most recent injuries.
Caliburn felt his crew snarling back, his cannons swiveling around as they gave their response in munitions as he lumbered forward, the ground shaking from his steps and the escape ships erupting out of the ground around them, his rotary cannon screaming as it fired, the MAC on the other arm barking as he hit it again and again as it charged forward.
The beast no longer cared for its injuries, all it cared was to take the metal monster before it down, spitting acid out of it as it tried, and failed, to blind the machine, even as said machine swung its smoldering plasma cannon up and brought down the burning barrels down on its head, smashing it into the ground, pinning it there as it's crew continued shelling it out ruthlessly.
Caliburn refused to let the beast survive, he refused to let the thing get to the civilians. His crew snarled their agreement as the beast tore the pinned head off its body, even as it burned away to nothing, and tried to charge again, blindly, only to smash against the MAC arm and receive a pair of heavy slugs to the neck stump for its troubles, sending it somersaulting back, trying to reform its head.
It was much, much smaller now, now matching Caliburns size, due to all the biomass loss, it's head reforming as it snarled.
Caliburn seemed to roll his pauldrons and twitched his MAC, as if saying 'come at me'. The beast howled and charged forward, razor sharp tentacles erupting from its sides, whipping about wildly, only for turret crews to blast the tentacles off at the base, and for his artillery crews to shell it down from above, flattening it into the ground again with explosive shells.
Again, the beast began pulling itself out of the ground, only for another strafing run from aircraft , this time dropping standard napalm canisters onto the beast, making it howl as it healed around the canisters, and began burning from within.
It thrashed and writhed, tail and body whipping about, even as Caliburn kept firing, not letting up, shells puncturing the chitin bubble it was trying to form around the napalm to contain it, keeping it burning into the beasts body.
At last, the beast tried to fling itself at Caliburn, thinking that it could at least burn out the mechanical monster with it, only for Caliburn to swing and strike it, flinging it away again, the beasts body unable to get back up, and laid there, slowly burning away at last……………
submitted by WritingDrakon
to HFY [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 15:53 Dazzling_Corgi_3190 Purifying Amphetamine - Complete Guide - Part 2: The practical part
Hey guys, it is coming with a lot of delay, but here it is – the practical part of the complete amphetamine purification guide that I announced ages ago
. First, a few things upfront.
Due to time and space constraints, it is not possible for me to cover and list all potentially possible purification methods that exist.
Therefore, I have focused on the ones that, in my experience, make some sense. So, things like recrystallization from an alcoholic solvent are not included because, in my opinion, it is a complete waste of time when it comes to amphetamine.
Furthermore, when it comes to purifying an unknown mixture, the problem is that it is not possible to choose the simplest possible method, as it strongly depends on which impurities need to be separated.
Therefore, I can only advise everyone who consumes regularly/daily to spend some money and invest in the necessary equipment for liquid-liquid extraction/acid-base extraction, as it is the most effective method apart from distillation when you don't know which substances you want to separate.
Lastly, a note:
All the procedures mentioned here are based on the assumption that the amphetamine is in the form of sulfate, as it is the case in 99.99% of all instances.
Most of the procedures should also work with other salts, but that strongly depends on the specific salt.
If you are unsure, start with a small amount to test it. I hope I don't have to mention that I assume all the chemicals involved are acquired in the highest possible purity and should preferably be anhydrous to avoid losses.
"Washing" speed or purifying it through filtration.
I consider washing your speed to be the minimum you should always do for your own sake because, honestly, it requires almost no effort, and the costs for everything you need are minimal, so there's practically no reason not to do it.
The procedure itself theoretically works with a wide range of solvents, but in practice, 2.5 solvents have proven to be effective: acetone, dichloromethane/chloroform, and in some cases, isopropyl alcohol.
Washing primarily helps to remove synthesis residues, solvent residues, caffeine, and in the case of isopropyl alcohol, lactose. The principle is the same in any case: The solvent dissolves the corresponding impurities but not the amphetamine sulfate, and after mixing the speed with the solvent, the sulfate is separated from the solvent through filtration.
I would advise everyone to determine the amount of solvent based on the assumption that 100% of your speed consists of caffeine, that is, based on the solubility of caffeine in the respective solvent. Isopropyl alcohol is the least preferable option because it only dissolves 1g of caffeine per 100ml, so I would recommend using it only if lactose is also present.
Acetone is the best choice for small amounts because it is relatively safe to handle. Acetone dissolves 1g of caffeine per 50ml, so I would use 50ml of acetone per gram of speed.
Dichloromethane and chloroform are the best options, but since both substances have a certain level of toxicity, caution should be exercised when working with them. They dissolve 1 gram of caffeine with just 7ml. For washing purposes, I would simply use 10ml per gram of speed for simplicity. In general, it is also recommended to perform two or more washing cycles because a single cycle will never achieve the same efficiency. The concept and execution are the same for all:
- 2 glasses,
- a spoon,
- a coffee filter,
- and the solvent are all you need, in my opinion.
Allow the speed to dry and then finely chop it. This will provide a more optimal surface area, making it easier to remove impurities.
Once that's done, take the speed and put it in one of the glasses.
Then pour the solvent into the glass and stir it with the spoon for a bit. Stir a bit longer, around 1-2 minutes.
Wait for another 5 minutes, then take the coffee filter and place it over the second glass like a funnel.
Once that's done, simply pour the contents of the first glass through the coffee filter into the second glass and wait for all the solvent to drain through the filter.
The amphetamine sulfate will still be in the coffee filter since it doesn't dissolve and can be scraped together after tearing or cutting open the filter.
Once the powder no longer has any odor, it can be consumed.
Purification through fractional recrystallization:
This method is based on the principle that when a mixture of substances dissolved in hot water is cooled, the substances that are less soluble in water compared to the other substances precipitate first. This is particularly true for caffeine, which is almost always present in speed, but certain sugar alcohols and substances like creatine can also be effectively separated using this method, which cannot be achieved through, for example, an acetone wash.
For example, caffeine is 33 times more soluble in boiling water compared to its solubility in water at room temperature, while the solubility of amphetamine sulfate only changes by a factor of 7.
To remove synthesis byproducts, it is still advisable to wash your speed first. However, this is not a prerequisite.
- A Kettle or a pot,
- A Coffee filter,
- 2x beakers/glasses,
- A Pasteur pipette 5ml (optional),
- A Glass rod or spoon for stirring
First, the distilled water needs to be heated to boiling. The easiest way to do this is with a kettle, but a stovetop and pot will also work if necessary.
While the water is slowly coming to a boil, fill a beake glass with the (previously dried and finely chopped) speed. Then, drop by drop and while stirring, add hot water until everything is dissolved.
As a rough guideline, you can estimate that approximately 4ml of water will be required, but this may vary slightly.
Next, let it cool to room temperature and then place it in the refrigerator for about 2 hours.
Meanwhile, place the coffee filter over the second glass. After the 2-hour period, the caffeine should be clearly visible as cotton-like needles in the beaker glass from the refrigerator.
Pour the contents troughthe coffee filter, collecting the filtrate in the second beaker glass.
What remains in the filter is the caffeine, while the amphetamine salt is now in the second beaker / glass. Transfer its contents onto the plate and allow the water to evaporate.
Once the water has evaporated, the residue only needs to be scraped together and is ready for consumption. Alternatively, it can be directly filled into a nasal spray.
Liquid-Liquid Extraction/Acid-Base Extraction
This method is not suitable for casual consumers as it involves a more complex procedure and requires some equipment and chemicals investment. However, most of the costs are one-time purchases, so they won't be incurred in subsequent runs.
This is the method I would personally recommend to regular consumers as it is significantly more effective than others, second only to distillation. However, this method involves working with potentially hazardous substances such as concentrated sulfuric acid, concentrated sodium hydroxide, and others. While handling them safely is possible, there is a potential risk involved.
The method combines the concept of liquid-liquid extraction with the acid-base salt concept, which ultimately achieves significant effectiveness.
Liquid-liquid extraction is a classic separation method in organic chemistry commonly used for processing reaction mixtures. It utilizes the differential solubility of substances in two immiscible solvents (e.g., watedichloromethane). According to the Nernst distribution law, different substances will ultimately accumulate in the solvent in which they are more soluble.
Subsequently, the amphetamine base is released from the amphetamine salt, causing a drastic change in solubility. This allows for the extraction of the amphetamine base and separation of all substances that do not undergo this salt/base transition, including water-soluble and less water-soluble compounds.
During the practical implementation, there are a few aspects that may vary depending on the choice of solvent, among other factors. Therefore, it is advisable for everyone to understand and internalize the information provided before carrying out the practical procedure. Link to reference
/04%3A_Extraction/4.06%3A_Step-by-Step_Procedures_For_Extractions) Required Equipment:
- One set of (6+) beakers (250ml - 500ml)
- 1 separatory funnel with stopper (250ml-500ml)
- 1 stand to hold the separatory funnel (1 stand base, 1 stand rod, 1 stand clamp or ring)
- 1 glass rod
- 1 scale
- 1 pH indicator paper
- 1 glass pipette
I will explain the practical procedure using dichloromethane (DCM) as it has a convenient density for the process, is highly effective for caffeine, and evaporates rapidly. Practical Procedure: Personal protective equipment (goggles, lab coat or apron) should be worn at all times. It is recommended to wear a pair of nitrile disposable gloves with a pair of latex disposable gloves over them. If any chemical contacts the gloves, immediately remove them, wash your hands, and put on a fresh pair. This precaution will help prevent any chemical burns. Always wear protective goggles to safeguard your eyesight when working with any chemicals.
- Distilled water
- Alcohol-based solvent (such as isopropanol), preferably 99.5% or higher
- Sulfuric acid (as concentrated as possible; if concentrated sulfuric acid is not available for purchase, you can concentrate it yourself Link)
- A non-water-soluble, relatively nonpolar solvent (I recommend DCM)
- Wash the speed with acetone.
- Purity the amphetamine sulfate by "shaking it out".
First, the amphetamine is naturally purified as a salt. Dissolve the speed in sufficient water and add the corresponding nonpolar solvent to the separatory funnel.
The ratio of water to organic solvent should be roughly 2:1 in terms of volume. Each phase separation should be given approximately 30 minutes. The amphetamine salt will be present in the aqueous phase, which, in the case of DCM/water, would be the upper phase, while the nonpolar impurities would be in the organic phase at the bottom of the separatory funnel. The extraction should be performed three times, meaning that after each phase separation, the organic solvent is drained into a separate beaker, and fresh organic solvent is added. Once that is done, drain the water+speed solution into another beaker and clean the separatory funnel.
- Preparation of sodium hydroxide solution.
To release the base, sodium hydroxide solution is required. Start by adding 10ml of distilled water to a 100ml beaker. Weigh out 7g of sodium hydroxide and add it slowly (with pauses) to the beaker containing the distilled water in small portions, stirring with a glass rod (Caution! The solution reacts exothermically, meaning it becomes hot!). Once all the sodium hydroxide has been added, set it aside and let it cool.
- Releasing the amphetamine base.
Clean the separatory funnel with distilled water and acetone, then refill it with the amphetamine sulfate/water solution.
Slowly add the sodium hydroxide solution in small portions, following the instructions provided in the link. Shake while venting the funnel and repeat this process until small oily droplets form on the surface.
Caution! This process is also exothermic!
Then, using a pipette, take a sample from the lower aqueous phase and test if the pH value is strongly alkaline (pH >= 13).
If that's the case, close the separatory funnel with the stopper and wait for the solution to cool.
- Extracting the amphetamine base.
After a short waiting period, add the organic solvent in an initial ratio of 1:2 (organic solvent) to (water). Shake vigorously, let it settle, and then drain the organic solvent+base mixture into a beaker. Note that in the case of DCM, the base will be in the lower phase since DCM has a lower density than water. In other solvents, it may be different.
Then add the same amount of organic solvent again. Shake, let it settle, etc., and drain the organic solvent into the same beaker again.
Repeat this process for three extractions without adding new water. Once that is done, drain the water into a separate beaker as well.
- Drying the amphetamine base.
First, dry the solvent+base mixture by using anhydrous potassium carbonate or molecular sieve A3, and separate the drying agent as in the washing step trough filtration.
Allow the organic solvent to evaporate.
The base is not as volatile as one might think, so depending on the solvent, you can apply some heat if necessary.
- Formation of amphetamine sulfate.
Once the base is dried and the solvent is evaporated, the salt is formed.
Dissolve the amphetamine base in the alcoholic solvent in a beaker.
The base-to-solvent ratio can be about 1:10. Stir the mixture with the glass rod and then prepare the sulfuric acid. It is recommended to dilute the sulfuric acid for this step, possibly to 20% or lower.
Dilute it in the alcoholic solvent and not in water because water could dissolve the salt, resulting in lower yields compared to diluting sulfuric acid in an alcoholic solvent.
Pour the diluted sulfuric acid into a pipette and slowly add it drop by drop to the base-alcohol mixture while stirring.
Take your time and don't rush. Regularly and frequently monitor the pH during the addition, ideally after every few drops.
Once the pH reaches around 8-7, stop adding acid.
- Washing the formed sulfate.
Afterward, filter the mixture and rinse the sulfate in the filter cake with acetone.
That's it! You have completed the process. General notes:
Please note that without knowing the exact purities, we cannot work with stoichiometry. Therefore, we will rely on the pH value for approximate measurements. However, there are rough estimates for the amounts needed per gram of speed.
For every mole of amphetamine sulfate, you would need approximately 2 moles of sodium hydroxide. This translates to around 3.09 ml of a 1.75 molar sodium hydroxide solution per 10 grams of amphetamine sulfate.
During neutralization, we would require approximately 1 mole of sulfuric acid for 2 moles of amphetamine base. This amounts to about 2.8 grams of sulfuric acid per 10 grams of amphetamine. It is advisable to dilute the sulfuric acid to around 20/25%. This makes it more manageable, but you will need to dilute it yourself.
Commercially available sulfuric acid is sold as a solution in water, and the higher the water content, the lower the yield you will obtain. Therefore, it is recommended to purchase sulfuric acid with a relatively low percentage, concentrate it, dissolve it in isopropanol, and then use it.
Additionally, familiarize yourself with the entire process, including practical execution, by referring to internship papers from universities, which are intended for their students, for example.
Pay attention to details such as regular pressure release, as they are crucial.
Theoretically, you can also carry out the neutralization directly in acetone.
This would eliminate the need for an additional alcoholic solvent. I had this in mind because 1L of 99.5% isopropanol costs me less than two euros, while acetone costs about six times as much.
Regarding the polarity of the alcoholic solvent, I would not recommend going higher than methanol. In methanol, the sulfate would be soluble, even if only to a minimal extent.
Do not worry about exposing the base to certain temperatures or leaving it exposed to air for a while. Significant evaporation should not be a concern unless the temperature exceeds 60-80 degrees Celsius.
It is possible to use other acids instead of sulfuric acid if, for example, phosphoric acid is more affordable. Phosphoric acid is also easier to handle. The pH of the solution would be only slightly different in the end. Please conduct further research on this topic.
Please ensure that you are mentally coherent during the process. Avoid attempting the procedure after several sleepless nights, for example. While the overall procedure is not difficult to complete without incidents, if you forget to release the pressure from the separation funnel due to lack of sleep and it explodes in your hand or you get splashed with highly concentrated sulfuric acid, you will encounter significant problems.
Finally, consider how to handle the waste products. Most of them can either be evaporated or disposed down the drain, such as sodium hydroxide. However, do not attempt to dispose of sulfuric acid in this manner.
This method is only suitable for people who really want to achieve maximum purity and are willing to invest a significant amount of money and engage in safe practices in organic chemistry.
Steam distillation is a special form of azeotropic distillation.
Simply put, volatile compounds that are steam-volatile add their own vapor pressure to the vapor pressure of water. These compounds distill along with water when the sum of their vapor pressures reaches atmospheric pressure.
In other words, the distilling water "carries" certain substances with it, allowing them to distill below their actual boiling point and separate them from a mixture. The method is very gentle on the substances and highly selective, as only a few substances are steam-volatile. Amphetamine is one of these substances.
To perform this method, you will need specific equipment and ideally have experience with laboratory work. It's important to know what you are doing to avoid compromising your yield or, worse, encountering significant problems.
Assuming you have already liberated the amphetamine base and have it solvent-free, either through the method mentioned above or by some other means, it is essential to familiarize yourself with safe distillation practices beforehand. You can refer to resources like Chapter 19 here
. Required Equipment:
- 1x Three-necked distillation flask with ground glass joints (NS 24/29)
- Multiple ground glass caps and stoppers (NS 24/29)
- 1x Liebig condenser with ground glass joint (NS 24/29)
- 1x Distillation head with vertical side arm, 2 NS 29/32 cores, 1 NS 14/23 socket
- 1x Distillation thermometer NS 14/23
- 1x Magnetic stirrer with heating plate or heating mantle,
- 1x heating plate
- Multiple hoses with matching ground glass connectors (NS 24/29)
- At least two stands with clamps
- 2x Three-necked flask as a steam kettle with a capacity according to requirements (ground glass joint 24/29)
- 1x Two-necked flasks as collection vessels for the distilled amphetamine (ground glass joint 24/29)
Assembly of the distillation apparatus:
First, place the stand on a stable surface and secure it with clamps.
Next, securely attach the three-necked distillation flask to the stand and place it on the magnetic stirrer with heating plate.
Make sure the flask is stable and upright, without wobbling.
Initially, attach the ground glass caps (NS 24/29) and stoppers (NS 24/29) to the necks of the distillation flask.
For the "steam kettle," use a second three-necked flask with ground glass joints (NS 24/29).
Seal the middle, long neck with a stopper and place a riser tube on the inlet neck of the flask for added safety.
Secure the "steam kettle" with a stand to ensure its stability.
Connect the outlet of the steam kettle to the inlet neck of the three-necked distillation flask (NS 24/29) using a hose and a suitable ground glass connector (NS 24/29).
Next, connect the ground glass outlet (NS 24/29) of the distillation flask to the ground glass inlet (NS 24/29) of the Liebig condenser using a distillation head with vertical side arm, 2 NS 29/32 cores, 1 NS 14/23 socket.
Align the condenser so that the upper part (inlet) of the condenser is positioned above the distillation flask, and the lower part points towards the collection vessel.
Attach a distillation thermometer with NS 14/23 joint to the socket of the distillation head. The length of this thermometer should correspond to your specific requirements, meaning it should only measure the temperature of the gas phase and not dip into the liquid.
Check that all connections are tight and stable. Finally, connect the lower end of the Liebig condenser to another two-necked flask with a ground glass joint (NS 24/29) using an appropriate connector.
Insert the connector into the inlet neck of the two-necked flask.
This two-necked flask serves as a collection container for the distillate and should also be secured by a stand.
It should have two necks because a screw valve with ground glass joint 24/29 is screwed into the remaining free neck.
This valve allows the release of any pressure if necessary.
Once everything is set up, perform a test run and distill a certain amount of water as a trial. If everything is sealed, stable, and without any issues, you can proceed. Otherwise, disassemble everything and reassemble it carefully.
First, add approximately five to ten times the volume of water compared to the corresponding amount of amphetamine, along with boiling stones, into the steam kettle and seal it tightly with a stopper.
Then, add the amphetamine base into the distillation flask and seal it tightly with a stopper as well.
Now, heat both the steam kettle and the distillation flask to 100 degrees Celsius, but stir the contents of the distillation flask gently.
Carefully monitor the distillation process.
The hot water in the steam kettle will act as carrier steam, vaporizing the amphetamine. The distilled amphetamine condenses in the Liebig condenser together with the water vapor and flows into the collection vessel.
Pay close attention to the temperature of the water vapor during the process. While the distillation process is in progress, the temperature will fluctuate and may not stabilize at a constant 100 degrees Celsius. Once the distillation process is complete, the temperature of the water vapor will stabilize and settle at 100 degrees Celsius.
At this point, you can stop the distillation process and separate the distilled amphetamine base from the water using liquid-liquid extraction. Important:
First, remove the steam inlet connection from the distillation flask! If you don't do this first and instead turn off the heat sources, a vacuum will be created in the steam kettle as the cooling water vapor condenses. If the inlet connection dips into the solution, the entire contents of the distillation flask will be sucked into the kettle. Additional Notes:
The distillation flask should be filled to a maximum of two-thirds of its capacity at the beginning of distillation, which should be considered when purchasing the flask.
The steam kettle should have a volume several times greater than the volume of amphetamine because, in case of any unforeseen circumstances, you may need significantly more water than amphetamine.
The uniform heating of the steam kettle is not critical, but remember to include boiling stones. However, it is crucial to ensure even heating of the amphetamine.
An oil bath would be ideal as a heat source, but a magnetic stirrer with a heating plate will also suffice.
submitted by Dazzling_Corgi_3190
to speed [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 15:49 Fun_View_6340 Can Gaviscon increase blood pressure? Ingredients listed.
Hello, I am a male, 20 and my systolic blood pressure plays crazy - systolic up to 150. I am diagnosed with LPR and Gaviscon is the only thing that keeps my reflux back... My heart is completely fine & I have not received any medication to lower my bp.
Can Gaviscon increase my blood pressure? If so, what is the maximum number of liquid bags I should take per day?
1x Gaviscon has the following ingredients:
- 500 sodium alginate
- 267 mg sodium bicarbonate
- 160 mg calcium carbonate
Would appreciate an answer very much. :)
submitted by Fun_View_6340
to medical [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 15:22 Fun_View_6340 Can Gaviscon increase blood pressure? Ingredients listed.
Hello, I am a male, aged 20 and my systolic blood pressure plays a bit crazy - systolic up to 147. I am diagnosed with LPR and Gaviscon is the only thing that keeps my reflux back...
Can Gaviscon increase my blood pressure?
Gaviscon has the following ingredients:
- 500 sodium alginate
- 267 mg sodium bicarbonate
- 160 mg calcium carbonate
Would appreciate an answer very much. :)
submitted by Fun_View_6340
to AskDocs [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 14:32 LveeD Week 22: Street Food - Corn Dogs (fail)
2023.06.04 14:30 Gassypacky Day 46 - Strawberry Nuggets.. what do you think??
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Just fertilized for the second time last night submitted by Gassypacky to MephHeads [link] [comments]
I mixed a tbsp of 4-18-38 and calcium nitrate with a liter of water
I also put in 2ml of Calmag and .75mL of Potassiun Silicate to raise the pH
They both reacted well this morning
My left plant is less of a dark green so I'm hoping the nitrogen kicks that back into gear
The left plant has also showed small signs of magnesium deficiency on some leaves as well as potassium.
The magnesium marks are just scars at this point but the 38% potassium I gave it should help remedy the potassium deficiency
I'm going to fertilize on a weekly basis at this point as they're definitely going to get hungry
Just a small note, I've been using the bottom leaves as a marker for when I should fertilize
I can kind of assume at this point if I don't fertilize at day 30-35 I'll start to drop some lower leaves, same with day 42ish
I'm going to just keeping running strains using what I have a try to perfect my soil runs with 4-18-38, calmag, and calcium nitrate (22-0-0)
Let me know your opinions! How do they look?
2023.06.04 08:13 TaraIsAFox Tacos! 2 for 15 carbs (3 pictures)