Power speakers for turntable
2011.09.17 21:04 TechnicsSL Vintage Audio
2021.04.08 19:12 lightwithin89 DumpsterAudiophile
did you get your receiver, amp, preamp, speakers, turntable, cassette player or other Audio equipment from the dumpster? make a post and show your dumpster diving plunder!
2016.04.24 19:29 ohaivoltage DIY Vacuum Tube Devices
Come learn about, share, and drool over awesome tube amplification projects. Questions welcome, but please keep topics and comments in the DIY spirit.
2023.06.03 06:10 amike7 How to lower temp on this cyberpower prebuilt?
Hi I’m new to gaming PCs and I’d appreciate tips to help lower my PC temp when gaming. Further below are the specs.
I understand AMDs runs hot and the temperature I’m seeing is normal but I don’t like that’s it’s like a mini heater, forcing me to blast my AC.
I solely play Halo Infiniti on lowest graphic settings but unlock the max FPS.
My MSI Center (mobo) settings are set to Balanced.
I have heard of the terms undervolting / overclocking but I really have no idea what they actually mean.
I’m willing to invest in upgrades but just simple ones that I could have Best Buy’s geek squad or Microcenter execute for me so nothing complicated like custom hydras systems haha!
Operating System: Windows 11
Gaming Chassis: LIAN LI PC-O11 Dynamic EVO ATX Mid-Tower Dual chamber Gaming Case w/ USB 3.1 Type-C, Tempered glass on the front & side. Extra Case Fans: 3X 120mm
CyberPowerPC Dual Addressable Digital ARGB Fans
CPU: AMD Ryzen™ 9 Processor 7900X 12-core/24-thread 4.7GHz [Turbo 5.6GHz] 64MB Cache AM5
CPU / Processor Cooling Fan: 240mm Liquid CPU Cooling (cyberpower brand but not sure how to find further details).
Motherboard: X670 with WiFi Motherboard
RAM / System Memory: 32GB (16GBx2) DDR5/4800MHz Dual Channel Memory
Video Card: PNY GeForce RTX™ 3080 10GB GDDR6X (Ampere) [VR Ready]
Power Supply: 1,000 Watts - Standard 80 Plus Gold Power Supply
Primary Hard Drive: 1TB WD Black SN750 SE Series (PCIe Gen4) NVMe M.2 SSD - Seq W: Up to 3600/2800 MB/s, Rnd W up to 525/640k
Thanks so much for your help!
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2023.06.03 06:09 Accomplished_Ad_655 Should I leave this startup as a weak cofounder?
I have an interesting situation. I started working on a startup idea as third co-founder with same amount of equity between all of us. The business idea looks plausible and all of us have good track record of successful exits.
Now the issue is that the main founder doesn't want to be the CEO and want to run the show by having his company as accelerator and he indirectly owns two board positions and half of the equity. The CEO is lame duck and has no say whatsoever.
I am curious if anyone seen this. It's been only 3 weeks I am working on this and looks like we made good progress so far in defining the product and all. We also got first demo ready for launch in a week.
What I feel uneasy is that the CEO and me both though have officer positions but we dont have much power. Which is ok if the guy running show was listening to our ideas. I disregarded initially his shutting ideas as possible quicker path to doing something viable and faster. But now I have enough data points to believe that he is just shutting down good or very good product ideas.
My alternative is to go back to my own project which I was bootstrapping into as an engineer and was feeling lazy to actually sell.
I am curious if anyone has thought on this.
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2023.06.03 06:09 Fantastic_Sir_8032 The unforgivable sin
I've been beating myself up lately. I was baptized, then I went through a phase where I wanted to worship Satan because I wanted to give my soul to him for power. I repented about two years later. I just can't shake the feeling that I've committed blasphemy against the holy spirit. Even though I believe in Jesus and accept him as my Lord an savior. Can someone please reassure me that I'm not going to hell. It's getting unbearable 😢
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2023.06.03 06:09 Rocdaric Turn on pc remotely without WOL and with a UPS
After having informed myself a bit on the subject, the solutions I found to start a PC remotely were 2: WOL and using a Smart socket.
Personally I would prefer to avoid leaving my pc "on" in low power mode for a matter of consumption, and I've also read that many people have trouble getting it to work from outside the household (aka through different networks).
For the option with the smart socket i think is just not applicable with a connected UPS (correct me if I'm wrong).
So I was wondering if anyone had any other methods to recommend. Thanks in advance for any response😊
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to techsupport [link] [comments]
2023.06.03 06:09 nicnak56789 I’m 21 year olds. I’m confused, lonely but self assured.
I have never been the nerdy or shy guy, not once have i seen myself that way. I was always younger than my friends, due to being born between school years my parents decided to put me in an older grade. I dont regret that they did that at all, i made amazing friends and wouldnt change a thing about my childhood. I would say that I’m more mature than average for my age, i try to be a gentleman, and generally spread positivity. I think i lacked confidence. I know I lacked confidence. Hell I still do, but I’m working on it and I can feel myself growing up. I used to crave being cool, what teenager didnt? But i think i was so obsessed with being someone that im not, that i lost a part of myself. A part that is very dear to me. Im writing this because i can feel that part returning, slowly but steadily, im becoming me. Im excited but extremely scared, because there are parts of me that i dont like.
I still feel like a teenager. Partly due to the fact that covid and immigration has made attending a physical college near to impossible. If you want to know the truth, i did attend college on campus for one whole month. Covid ended that, but I wasnt with people i enjoyed seeing, they were lovely but i felt extremely out of place. Hell, i dont even know who or what I like. Im interested in going to college here (USA), but quite frankly, it scares me and i can’t afford it. The US is different to where Im from (well duh sherlock) but it intimidates me. Almost everyone my age that I have met is just so self shrouded and focused on sex and it truly petrifies me. Im not by any means a non sexual person, but i havent found a person that i wanted to have sex with because i wanted to have sex with them, not just to have sexl Up until recently, ive dreamed of being a douchebag that gets all the girls and has all the friends.
But thats not what i really want. I want to love someone. With and without sex. In my 6’2 180 pound athletic body hides a scared little man, with more vulnerability than i could possibly imagine. A soft center surrounded by 10 inch steel plates. Ive had sex before, not with only one girl, but once, in total. I was so excited that my moment had arrived, the moment I spend 19 years dreaming of, with a girl a had a crush on no less. But after that moment, I realized how much sex can complicate things. My first thought after losing my virginity, and you can laugh, was “i love you”, the girl was pretty, funny, sweet but I realized immediately that I had no interest in her beyond sex, in fact i think the main reason i pursued her was to feel power over my friends, i hated that, i hated me, and i hate that I have to admit that. I felt like an asshole, i was an asshole. I handled the situation about as well as every romantic situation I’ve encountered(ie not very maturely or well). So much for that dream of being a douchebag huh?
I realized that sex is part of life, and relationships and hatred and love but i think i was valuing it too highly. I crave sex as much as any 21 year old does. But i think im a romantic at heart. I have lost hope in pursuing casual sex (not only because I’m terrible with girls, but because I dont think im a casual sex type of guy). I genuinely want to care about someone and appreciate them. I know they say love finds you, you dont find love. But im scared im wasting my best years away. I go out and party and club every once in a while (usually alone, partly because i dont have many ‘clubbing’ friends but mainly because i want to push myself into being confident.) I havent met a single girl that i like. hey, mainly because im locked away in my room all day but partly because i just get so anxious talking to girls.
I cant wait to be more grown up, an older friend of mine that shared a similar view told me that girls are going to appreciate the fact that i want to be genuine and a gentleman. Just not yet. Girls my age just want to have fun and party and meet cute guys with confidence and bravado, but im not like that. And i think as i get older, ill find girls that are looking for something like me.
I dont know. I feel like an idiot writing all this down, i know that im probably wrong and theres plenty of people my age that feel the same way. I just feel a tad lost. If you managed to read this far, thank you, I appreciate you taking the time to ‘listen’
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2023.06.03 06:09 TempesT_0021 M4F medieval high fantasy rp (adv. Lit)
She was the first of her kind, the first child born with both mortal and divine blood flowing through her veins. Her mother was Nyx, the goddess of the night and moon while her father had been a talented amd ambitious sorcerer. Their love was forbidden and the gods tried to force Nyx to turn her back on the mortal, Nyx adamantly refused and eventually gave birth to a daughter.
As the child grew so did her power, reluctantly the gods had little choice but to acknowledge her amd so the time came for her to be tested. They wished to see whether she was worthy of taking her place amongst them, they believed she woukd be honoured but they neglected to take into account the mortal side of her. Why should she live amongst those that considered her less? She had the power to claim the mortal world and rule it as her own kingdom.
Turning her back on her divinity, Mephala sort to take control of the mortal world and shape it in her image. Sure the mortal races would resist but she would bring them to heel. She created a new type of sorcery, a sorcery using blood. She gathered followers and taught them this vile sorcery, granting power to those not lucky enough to born with magic and creating the first blood shamans. Her acolytes weren't enough and she would need an army, one she found within a primal group of orcs. With her blood sorcery she corrupted and changed them, creating the first Urai.
Within the ranks of the Urai, she choose the strongest amd twisted them even more, these would become the blood marked. With everything in order, she brought war and started with the continent of Elythia. Divided, the mortal races were quick to be overwhelmed and driven to the brink of defeat. It was only when they banded together that they managed to resist, heroes arose and blessed by the gods themselves they were able to to eventually defeat and vanquish Mephala. They believed that defeatimg Mephala would cause her forces to collapse and they were partly right, her followers scattered and her armies fled and disbanded but she was a corruption. Whilst her physical form perished, her influence remained, at least in secret it did.
1500 years passed, history became legend and the world moved on.....
Panic gripped the city of Harwatch, citizens huddled behind its great walls while guards stood alongside adventurers, mercenaries and almost anyone capable of holding a weapon or flinging a spell. Commanders barked orders whilst those in charge struggled to understand what they were seeing, of course they knew what they were seeing but processing it was another thing entirely. They knew the enemy advancing was Urai, many adventurers had taken at least one job to drive away the red skined brutes. What was difficult to comprehend was the numbers, Urai were tribal and rarely gathered in groups more them a dozen strong and never more then two dozen. Now they were seeing around a thousand making their way towards the city. If that wasn't problem enough, the champion of the city, a high ranked and valiant knight was nowhere to be seen. Unbeknownst to all but a few, the champion was at that moment clutching what remained of his arm, the cold hands of death slwoly closed in around him as an assassin moved to finish th job....
Hey there and thanks for reading this long. Currently I'm looking to start a new Role play set in the world that I have started to create. It is a medieval high fantasy world, think dungeons and dragons style. I'm looking for a partner 21+ that enjoys world building and character development, one that is happy to throw in their own ideas to not only develop the story but the world as well. Ideally I would love to create a story that combines action, adventure, drama and romance. As for roles, well I have nothing set in mind and so an oc could be anything, open to almost ideas. Please know that I only use discord, third person and looking for a partner that writes at around the adv. Lit level. Thank you amd feel free to send a message if this interests you.
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2023.06.03 06:08 TheRevTholomewPlague Nothing else has ever told me it recognizes me quite like this record did.
"Life is But a Dream..." has unequivocally ripped my soul out of my body, slammed me into the dirt, picked me up, said "I love you," and then put me back together with a gentle pat on the shoulder. It opened the core of my being and reminded me how much I really fucking love being alive. I am so grateful for everything I have ever experienced, including the damage. No creature on this earth escapes life without pain. A7X always happens to drop music that is thematically about what I either have interest in or is happening in my life, and I know that this was the record I needed this time around. I wouldn't have connected to it nearly as deeply as I just did today if I had heard this instead of "The Stage" seven years ago because I wouldn't have been ready for the emotional weight this carries. I feel like Atlas, having just had the sky taken off his shoulders. I want every single one of you to remember your value and your power. I know you'll see brighter days along the way. We love you.
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2023.06.03 06:08 SpankyMcGee__ I'm looking for a 'silent' guitar amp for DI recording, what do I need to know before purchasing?
I'm currently recording my budget electric through a Scarlet 2i2 and would like to invest in a hardware amp strictly for the purpose of DI recording.
I hope I can get more for my money by looking at a unit without a speaker cabinet. I'm interested in adding some tone to my guitar before running it through my nearfield mixing monitors.
What do I need to know to make an informed decision about this kind of amp?
Does anyone have suggestions for where my money will be best spent in adding tone prior to my interface? Thanks!
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2023.06.03 06:08 Fluffy_Ad1374 Leos loo too issue
Hi! I recently got a leos loo too. I'm having an issue where it keeps doing its initial first cycle. Where the lights blink between white, blue and red. It just doesn't stop rotating. I'm not sure why. I've tried resetting it in the app, I've completely unplugged for a while, I switched it to manual mode and it still rotates. It'll only stop if I hit "clean" or just power it off. Oh and it also does stop if a cat gets near it. So I don't know if it's a sensor thing or not. Please help. I've reached out to their customer service and haven't heard back yet. Thanks!
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2023.06.03 06:07 Otherwise_Ad5680 🔥 Win a $200 Target Gift Card! Enter Now! 🔥
| || | submitted by Otherwise_Ad5680 to u/Otherwise_Ad5680 [link] [comments]
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2023.06.03 06:07 IssueZealousideal436 COuld i get 200 dollars for this old plc build?
here are the specs
Gpu 1050 3gb stealth (makes no noise)
Ram ddr3 16gb
Cpu intel i3 3.4 ghz (can play games and watch videos)
100gb ssd with room to expand
1.1 terabyte external for everything else
Motherboard intel dz77ga-70k lga 1115 Things that come with the pc Free keyboard And the power cord for the pc
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2023.06.03 06:07 _CaptainKek Which 7900XTX (or something else?)
I've been wanting to upgrade from a 1080ti for a while now and I've been looking at 7900XTX's. Purpose is gaming, monitor is 1440p at 165hz and CPU is a 5900X.
I can see that a Sapphire Pulse can be had for $1459 at umart, ASUS TUF for $1479 at bpctech or a PowerColor Hellhound at PCCG for $1499.
Any suggestions as to what I should go for? $1500 is kind of the hard limit, unless of course a 4090 appeared for $1800...
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2023.06.03 06:07 CelticParadis Help! My PC keeps getting up past its bedtime:
I've been having this issue for a while, and what Google has suggested hasn't worked so I thought I'd ask here. So basically whenever I put my PC to sleep, it works fine until I wake it up again. All normal/how it should be. Except for if I turn on my laptop. As soon as I power it on the PC comes to life and I can't find any "wake on cloud connection" setting or anything that might trigger that. It's extremely annoying, especially when I come home after a two day shift to find my PC has been running the whole time. Any help would be amazing. Thanks!
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2023.06.03 06:07 RightWingNat Tragic Orissa Train Crash turned into a toolkit to defame Modi and India. Indian Railways was constantly under the radar because of Modiji getting much involved in Vande Bharat Project. Watch out for a larger conspiracy behind the crash. Remember power struggle has always been bloody.
2023.06.03 06:07 sandiosandiosandi ULPT - cheapest way to run noise apps to a Bluetooth speaker
I have a shitty neighbor who regularly cranks his radio up to ungodly volumes. I often manage by running some kind of noise (podcasts, white noise, etc) on my phone to Bluetooth speakers. The problem comes when I try to use my phone for anything else that interrupts (like if I'm playing a game and an ad comes on). I don't want to add another phone to my service. Do burner phones from the drugstore work for this without a plan?
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2023.06.03 06:07 Brightt2 Serpent
There is one thing that bothers me deeply. Authors nerfing sunny with giving soul serpent to rain. Think about this for a second. Look at the serpents aspects, it ranks with sunny,it gives sunny shadow essence from kills, and it could transform any NC sunny killed. And that is not the end, because it gains more aspects when sunny rank up. So it will be more powerful.
İts basically perfect helper for sunny, even in this state.
Sunny is weak against weaker but numerious swarms, it is the best complement in that kind of situations.
And after acending to trancendence, it could transform any NC that is not above, corrupted tyrant. İt would add sunnys flexibility in different situations a lot. You need something Tanky, or something with mind attacks? Or some mind hex? İt covers whatever you need at the moment.
I undertand why he nerfed sunny that way, but camoon. I feel like he lost something so foundational.
Even Saint is not foundational and complementery to his power as ss.
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2023.06.03 06:06 ChickunArms Over voltage City Powerline
Hi All, I just wanted to seek some advice. I recently experienced an over voltage in our newly built home which cause the fire alarm strobe lights throughout the house to explode and momentarily catch on fire.
The utility company basically said that there was an over voltage in the house, so now we are tethered to our neighbours power line while the utility company fixes ours. They said it may have been damaged from construction, so they’d have to dig and run a new line.
We noticed some of our appliances got fried - Fridge and Water Heater. Ever since the incident, I’ve noticed our lights would flicker. It’s also more noticeable when we have appliances running like the dryer.
We’re currently waiting on an electrician to inspect our home and the wirings.
At the moment, we’re worried about turning on / plugging in anything in the house..
We also have an EV charger, and scared to hook it up to the NEMA 14-50 plug.
Just wondering if you had some advice or any FYIs.
We understand that some of our breakers are double fed… not sure if having their own designated breaker would help at all..
Thank you for reading!
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2023.06.03 06:06 LoveMangaBuddy Read Vengeance from a Saint Full of Wounds - Chapter 49 - MangaPuma
Lua, was a candidate for a Saint with the power to heal, however, there was a flaw in her ability, since she transferred the symptoms to herself to be able to heal them, that way treating someone meant that in return she experienced pain and suffering. The Saint candidates treated her as flawed, but her best friend Arian was the only one who always protected her. One day, Garrot, the leader of the ... Read Vengeance from a Saint Full of Wounds - Chapter 49 - MangaPuma. Read more at https://mangapuma.com/vengeance-from-a-saint-full-of-wounds/chapter-49
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2023.06.03 06:06 EQBC Why Boxing?
This is the first question that comes to everyone’s mind when they think about it.
Here are some but not all best physical benefits of Boxing.
A killer cardio workout that burns some serious calories real fast, improves your hand-eye coordination, helps build shoulder boulders, improves Bone Mineral Density, increases the endurance & stamina, enhances cardiovascular health, tones & shapes the body, and improves total body strength. These are few to be mentioned. Anyone involved in boxing knows of its power – particularly among working-class kids – to improve health, education, community cohesion and to lower crime.
You hear it all the time: You need to do cardio to protect yourself from heart disease, burn calories, and lose or maintain your weight. There are not enough promoters of boxing as a sport in the modern world. It’s a stressed-out world out there and boxing training really helps you to decrease stress level. Also, you must exercise to improve body composition out of the sedative lifestyle of young people. Easter Queens boxing club is known for its Athletic Training and Conditioning.
Boding experts have pointed out some important benefits for kids as well in the age group of 5 year to 15 year. Boxing focuses on agility, speed, quickness, balance, and hand-eye coordination, Confidence Building, Health and Proper Fitness, Self-Defense, Good Eating Habits, Higher GPAs, Staying out of Trouble, Humility and Patience.
What do boxing coaches look for in a boxer?
It is difficult to find a good boxing coach that gets the best out of you in the ring through his training out of the ring. If we think about a good boxing coach, he must possess the ability to work with fighters that vary in style, size, age, and experience. They will be able to analyze your strengths and weaknesses, then plan a training strategy. A coach will train you to augment your strengths and develop, improve upon and eventually eradicate your weaknesses.
How important is a boxing coach?
There is a famous saying about boxing “Behind every great boxer, there is a great boxing coach”.
Finding the right boxing trainer for you is essential to improve your boxing ability and to continuously develop as a boxer. In fact, trainers are so important, most professional fighters often have multiple coaches specializing in different expertise.
One more question can pop into your mind in this case, that is, do you need a boxing trainer?
Let me clear it for this sport, one cannot become a pro boxer by self-training with no trainers, You can’t. You must have a trainer to be able to do it right. You must also be able to spar unless you like to fight your imagination.
Something about trainers, what to consider while selecting a trainer. A great trainer must have a mental and emotional connection with the fighter, feeling what his fighter feels, and being able to see what the fighter is seeing. Trainers don’t give up on their boxers, and never let them feel unappreciated and incomplete. Remember one thing, a trainer who is in it for the quick buck is not a good trainer.
Same time you need a great boxing club to train yourself. You will never learn how to box without joining a boxing club/gym. A good, equipped boxing club is as much important as a good, experienced trainer, it can be even a friend who has experience from boxing trainings and fights, so he can correct you on your mistakes on boxing mitts, a lot of sparrings to learn how to react to a moving living target, but alone? No chance. If you want to be a recreational boxer, any gym that has a boxing program will do, but if you really want to devote yourself to the sport, you’ll have to find a good gym. Eastern Queen boxing club is one of the great places in the USA to join and get trained from experienced trainers to transform yourself into a professional boxer. Kids boxing and development
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2023.06.03 06:05 Unlikely-Struggle-56 I HOPE THIS DOESNT "BREAK THE INTERNET" -WILDMAN-SAINT&SINNER PROMPT
WILD MAN: Saint or Sinner Posted on May 2, 2021by Dana Rehn The Representation of Wild Folk During the German Renaissance The wild man was inspired in part by pagan hybrid woodland creatures like the satyr, however, much of the mythology of the wild man stems from barbarians of Europe.[i] For much of the Middle Ages, they were considered the antithesis of the civilised Christian society. They were cannibalistic, sexually deviant predators whose many characteristics were related to monstrous races as well as the insane. Despite the wild folk’s outsider status and the antithesis of Christian morality, the wild man and woman nevertheless became an icon of German nationalism. The image of the wild man and woman became a pervasive figure throughout the German Renaissance, depicted on a vast range of media from stained glass, woolen tapestry, playing cards (fig. 3), and ordinary household objects. The wild man and woman transitioned from a demonic brute beast to a romanticised image of the noble savage. They recall a simpler time in German history and became a part of the image of a united and strong German people. They also posed as an affront to the court culture of Rome and became associated with the virtues of the natural wilderness. Cleric, Johann Geiler von Kaysersberg, associated them with the image of the hairy saints who found redemption in the wilderness by categorising them as a type of wild man in Die Emeis.[ii] The German forests that the Wild Man was thought to reside were starting to be romanticised. Geographer, Johannes Rauw, praised the ancient forests that had long been demonised by Italians as a place of barbarians.[iii] From rapists of damsels, wild men were depicted with the virtues of the nuclear family in the Garden of Eden before ‘The Fall’ (Genesis 3). In this way, the wild man and woman became increasingly mythologised, merged with ancient Germans, ascetic saints as well as Adam and Eve. Although there were a growing number of romanticised images of the wild man and woman during the sixteenth century, negative representations persisted. Their depiction was not a simple shift from demonic woodland creature to the image of holy saints; many possessed both contradictory notions of sinner and sainthood. The multifaceted representation of wild folk reflected many of the contradictions of German Renaissance society. Man or Animal The reputation of the wild man stems from antiquity. Aristotle believed that people who lived outside the civilising influence of the urban city lacked the ability to reason.[iv] In this way, they were considered closer to animal than man, subjected to their impulses.[v] The wild man and woman were also believed to lack speech, used primitive tools such as the club, and lived away from civilisation.[vi] Even the food that the wild folk would eat – berries and uncooked food – was a mark of uncivilisation and thus associated them more with animals than man.[vii] Many were also thought to crawl on all fours, which is illustrated by the often bare knees of wild men and women.[viii] The wild man as well as the woman were characterised for their violence and unhinged rage. They both shared a love of combat and have even been depicted jousting against one another.[ix] It is not just appearance, but also behaviour that made someone bestial like peasants who were described with animal qualities. The wild man has also been associated with bears and mythology exists with bears who were able to transform into wild men.[x] Their unbridled sexuality was also more associated with animals. Wild men were thought to abduct pretty maidens, while the wild woman would transform herself into a beautiful woman and attempt to seduce men with her true ugliness only to be revealed during intercourse.[xi] In this way, they were also associated with other pagan and hairy woodland hybrid creatures from antiquity including satyrs and centaurs, who were also known for their immoral behaviour and insatiable sexual appetite.[xii] Albrecht Dürer combined classical mythology with German folklore in the engraving of the Abduction of Proserpine on a Unicorn (1516) (Fig. 1). The print recounts the mythology of the abduction of the goddess of fertility by Pluto (Hades), God of the underworld – the pagan equivalent to the Devil.[xiii] In place of the classical god is a wild man on the back of a unicorn. Although this wild man is not covered in think body hair, he has wild hair on top of his head and a large bushy beard. He is identified as a wild man by his riding of a unicorn where the wild man was believed to be the only creature strong enough to overpower it by force.[xiv] Unicorns were originally regarded as ferocious beasts who used their horn as a weapon.[xv] Tales and visual art from the fourteenth century tell of wild men who become tamed by love after abducting a woman.[xvi] Yet this print illustrates man’s sexuality was thought to reduce them to a brute beast. Fig 1. Albrecht Dürer, Abduction of Proserpine on a Unicorn, 1516, Etching, 30.8 x 21.3cm, The Institute, Chicago. During the Middle Ages, many people concluded that wild man and woman were degenerative humans. They became an irrational beast in the same way that the insane were believed to be a form of wild people. Medieval romances frequently described people who suffered a crisis and lost their mind and ran into the forest living as semi-human wild people.[xvii] In Hartmann von Aue’s (c. 1160/70- c. 1210/20) Iwein, the protagonist who has broken a promise to his wife and is rejected, roams around in the forest until he is discovered by a lady who saves him from his insanity.[xviii] The wilderness in part created the state for wildness as it was away from civilisation and rationality.[xix] Like many monsters during the period, the wild man and woman were defined by their nudity. In this way, they were symbolically outside civilisation – both physically and behaviourally.[xx] Even those who have become temporary wild men through madness and fled into the forest shed their clothes and only returned to civilisation by again putting their garments back on. While in the forest they begin to grow hair all over their body to signify their move away from the human realm and into the animal one.[xxi] The wild man and woman encapsulated the fears of Europeans and what happens to one if they abandon civilisation.[xxii] The theme of civilising the wild man was popular during the Middle Ages. It was knowledge and acceptance of the one true faith that inevitably brought the wild man back to civilisation.[xxiii] In a thirteenth-century Bavarian epic poem, republished in the sixteenth-century German collection of stories, Das Heldenbuch mit synen figuren (‘The Book of Heroes’), recounts a wild woman called Raue Else (‘Rough Else’). The woman who was hairy all over and walked on all fours approached the knight, Wolfdietrich, who questioned if she was an animal. [xxiv] The wild woman demanded the love of the knight and upon his refusal turned him into a crazed wild man who crawled on all fours for half a year until God commanded her to disenchant him. In return, Wolfdietrich offered to marry the wild woman so long as she was baptised. She took him back to her kingdom at Troy and after bathing in the fountain of youth she was transformed into her former self, the beautiful princess, Sigeminne (‘Love’s victory’).[xxv] Wild Man as Noble Savage Although the wild man and woman were frequently represented in literature during the Middle Ages, they were rarely depicted in visual art until the fifteenth century.[xxvi] Therefore, their most ferocious reputation left little mark in visual culture. Instead, the wild man and woman were frequently represented in Renaissance art as the image of purity, with their family representing the virtues of parenthood and a companion or as a saint. Lynn Frier Kaufmann argues that the idea of chivalry and courtly love during the Middle Ages influenced the way wild men and women were depicted during the Renaissance.[xxvii] Larry Silver on the other hand interpreted their new role as cultural emblems brought by the rise in Germanic nationalism, which inspired the new translation of Tacitus’s Germania, describing wild people who only wore a cape of animal’s hide, as the first proud inhabitants of the Germanic lands (for example, fig. 2) .[xxviii] In this way, Tacitus’s Germania transformed the wild man into the romanticised version of the noble savage during the German Renaissance.[xxix] They lived a simple and virtuous life. They needed no written laws because they had good morals and rejected the habits of outsiders.[xxx] The nobility and urban elite began to romanticise the wild man for their strength and freedom from the rules of society.[xxxi] Conrad Celtis described a counterpart to early Germans in the Lapps. He described them as speechless but also that they had not been corrupted with luxury, fame, or wine. ‘Here no jurist twists the law, no doctor accumulates his blood money, and no tonsured man plagues the people’.[xxxii] Fig. 2. Nicolaes van Geelkerken after Clüver in Philipp Clüver, Germaniae antiquae libri tres, Leiden: Louis Elzevir, 1616, Engraving, London, The Wellcome Library. Source: archive.org
On a playing card by Master ES printed in c. 1461, a wild woman is depicted with a unicorn (fig. 3). While wild men overpower the unicorn with their bold ferocity, it was the wild woman’s sexual purity that allowed her to get close to the unicorn. A tale of the unicorn captured only by pure virgin maidens arose during the Middle Ages. This led to the unicorn being represented as a sign of purity and thus underscores the image of the wild woman as epitome of the noble savage.[xxxiii] A sense of innocence accompanies their ignorance of the civilized world. Playing cards usually consisted of four suits with illustrations of plants, animals, and heraldic symbols. The wild woman with the unicorn is one of four cards surviving in the animal suit by Master ES.[xxxiv] Richard Bernheimer suggests that the images on the cards represent a hierarchy.[xxxv] Therefore, it places the wild man and woman in the realm of animals.[xxxvi] This is plausible since this wild woman represents the Queen of the Animals. However, her clasping grip of the unicorn who is dwarfed by the wild woman shows her dominate position in nature. Fig. 3. Master ES, Wild Woman and Unicorn (Queen of Animals from the Small Playing) c. 1461, Engraving on Playing Card, 10.5 x 7.3cm (Sheet); 9.8 x 6.cm
(Plate), New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. The wild man also featured in more than 200 coat-of-arms across Europe, most of which were in German lands.[xxxvii] They were particularly popular during the second-half of the fifteenth century.[xxxviii] Interestingly, the wild man was illustrated beside coats-of-arms of popes and kings as their protector or guardian of the coat-of-arms despite the wild man’s history as a heretical being.[xxxix] Roundel prints of coat-of-arms were likely used as templates for goldsmiths or glassmakers who would fill in the family crest.[xl] It has also been suggested that these roundels were used by the middle class to emulate the coat-of-arms of the nobility. The templates were used as a substitute for commissioned coat-of-arms.[xli] In Wild Woman and Heraldic Shield, c. 1490 (fig. 4), a wild woman suckling her baby is reminiscent of the Madonna and child. This image reveals the redemption of women through childbirth for their responsibility for Original Sin (Genesis 3.16). She also serves as an emblem for fertility for the family whose shield she holds to ensure the family line. Fig. 4. Martin Schongauer, Wild Woman and Heraldic Shield, Colmar, c. 1490, Engraving, 7.7 diam. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Return to the Garden of Eden The image of the noble savage in turn influenced the idyllic images of the wild family. Master bxg’s Wild Folk Family (c. 1475) parallel Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. Adam and Eve who were portrayed in animal skins after ‘The Fall’ are akin to the hairiness of the wild family.[xlii] In Master bxg’s print stands the tree of knowledge, overlooked by an owl in the background, symbolising potential danger as owls served as a symbol for evil.[xliii] A rabbit bounds towards a forest in the top left. Rabbits were used as a symbol for fertility and has been depicted in images of Adam and Eve during ‘The Fall’ and thus can symbolise carnal knowledge. The wild woman’s long hair symbolises her fertility and thus her unbridled sexuality and parallels with the depiction of Eve in the Garden of Eden with long, loose flowing hair.[xliv] Although the representation of the wild family references Original Sin, they are still in a state of nature and innocence and their ignorance of God therefore cannot constitute sin.[xlv] However, it also provides a mirror of the tensions between good and evil within German Renaissance society – between temptation and godliness.[xlvi] The wild family not only recall Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, but also the image of the Holy Family who were often represented against the backdrop of the wilderness.[xlvii] In a comparative print in Hans Leonhart Schäufelein’s, Wild Man and Wild Woman originally printed in c.1520 (fig.5), the wild family are still hairy and naked, although they wear fig leaves to help preserve their modesty. The fig leaves allude to after ‘The Fall’ in the Garden of Eden once they have eaten from the tree of knowledge and realise their nakedness and feel shame. In this way, the sins of the past are not completely forgotten. However, the image lies in opposite to the unbridled sexuality of the earlier idea of the wild man and woman. One son attempts to place a leash around a domesticated dog, which further symbolises a new domesticity to the wild family.[xlviii] Despite its clear reference to Original Sin, it illustrates an idyllic family scene, away from the corrupting influences of ‘civilised life’.[xlix] Fig. 5. After Hans Schäufelein, Klag der wilden Holtzleüt, uber die ugetrewen Welt, verse by Hans Sachs, printed by Hans Guldenmundt, Augsburg, 1560 Coloured woodcut, 20.2 x 24.2cm (sheet), 20.2 x 15.2 cm (borderline) The British Museum, London. This image was later copied with an addition of a poem written by Hans Sachs in 1530. In the poem the wild folk lament against the corruption and evils of society such as the lust for wealth, flesh, and violence. The wild folk in Sachs’ verse have chosen to discard worldly pleasures to live the simple and pure life in nature. The verse ends with the wild folk declaring that they will be happy to return to civilisation once the world ‘see the light’.[l] This verse parallels the wild man with ascetic monks whose wildness is a temporary state and who seek redemption away from civilisation. Wild Man as Saints The tales of saints who found redemption in the wilderness by discarding worldly pleasures, growing hair on their body and then returning to civilization and shedding their hair once more became co-opted with the image of wild men and women during the Renaissance. Many stories of anchorites parallel with others, to the point that they can become indistinguishable.[li] Onuphrius is one of the better-known ascetic saints who lived during the fourth century. Paying penance, he lived in a cave for sixty years, as wild men and women were thought to do. His clothes wore away and he grew a thick coat of hair to protect his body against the elements (fig. 6).[lii] Saint John Chrysostom similarly went into the wilderness to pay penance and vowed to crawl on all fours until he found favour with God.[liii] Ascetic saints were similarly depicted with bare knees as wild men and women were also believed to crawl on all fours like an animal, wearing away the hair. In Leben der Heiligen (1499), where Saint John Chrysostom is depicted as covered in thick hair and crawling on all fours in the forest is described as an ‘abominable animal,’ despite being depicted with a halo around his head.[liv] Ascetic saints were therefore reduced to a beast just as the wild men and women had traditionally been as they are seen as degenerating into an animal who grow hair on their body and ate raw food.[lv] In this way, the figure of the hairy monstrosity was able to find redemption, at least in part, cast as the model of repentance. Fig. 6. Anonymous, Saint Onuphrius, c. 1480-1500, woodcut, 14.6 x 11.4cm, New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. During the German Renaissance, Saint Mary Magdalene, who was regarded for her beauty,[lvi] was frequently represented covered in hair like a wild woman. Her hairy image found wide devotion through the southern Germanic region.[lvii] In a tale originating in the tenth century, Mary was set adrift by non-believers and by divine guidance found her way to the south of France where she preached and converted the locals. She lived in a cave in Saint-Baume, Provence, paying penance for her former sinful life.[lviii] The name Magdalene means manens rea or ‘remaining in guilt’.[lix] She grew hair all over her body in the same way as a wild woman. In her cave she remained silent and when a hermit approached her, she had trouble speaking after being secluded for so long, not unlike the wild man and woman.[lx] Every hour, angels would ascent her to the heavens where she would gain nourishment as she was so remote that there was no food or water.[lxi] Mary’s ascension into the heavens as a hairy wild woman was a theme in German Renaissance prints and is illustrated in a print by Hans Baldung Grien (c.1484-1545) in c.1512 (fig. 7 ).[lxii] Her ascent represents her body’s transcendence from both worldly pleasures and the wilderness. Fig. 7. Hans Baldung Grien, St Mary Magdalen, c.1512, Woodcut, Sheet: 13 × 8.7 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. The image and identity of Mary Magdalene during the Renaissance is believed to be conflated with the story of Saint Mary of Egypt who lived in the fifth century. Mary has long been thought to be a prostitute. She travelled to Jerusalem where she became aware of her sins when she could not enter a Church as she was held back by a spiritual ‘force’. She saw the image of the Virgin Mary staring back at her and realised why she could not enter. Mary of Egypt, the antithesis to the Virgin prayed to her for forgiveness and renounced her life of sin.[lxiii] Mary went to live alone in the desert to repent for forty-seven years.[lxiv] The desert was a place to be tested against sins, for punishment, but also for contemplation and redemption.[lxv] Both Mary of Egypt and Mary Magdalene have both similarly been depicted covered by hair that represents their place outside of civilization and discarding worldly possessions. It was also used to provide modesty to discern from their previous occupation of the flesh.[lxvi] As seen in the print by Lucas Cranach the Elder, The Ecstasy of St. Mary of Egypt (1506) (fig. 8) who was thought to levitate in prayer,[lxvii] is similar to the composition of prints of Mary Magdalene being accented by angels. The naked saints signified the return to nature before ‘The Fall’ in the Garden of Eden.[lxviii] Despite this earlier legend, Mary Magdalene was not depicted in art as covered in hair until the mid-fifteenth century but was rather naked with her long hair covering her modesty. The image of the hairy Mary Magdalene was therefore believed to originate in fifteenth-century Germany.[lxix] The detail of the hairy Mary Magdalene was also not included in the popular thirteenth century The Golden Legend by Jacobus de Voragine (c.1230-1298) that combined the tales of Magdalene. Her nudity was implied as the hermit who visited her passed her a garment to wear.[lxx] The hair covering Mary of Egypt was also a later addition to the story and also does not appear in The Golden Legend.[lxxi] She similarly does not seem to appear in art until the fifteenth-sixteenth centuries.[lxxii] The same can be said of other saints who turn into a wild man, at least temporarily such as Saint John Chrysostom.[lxxiii] This suggests ascetic saints who grew hair over their body was a contemporary idea that arose at the same time that the wild man and woman were popular in Renaissance prints. However, as Bartra notes, the idea of the hairy ascetic saint derived from Ancient Egypt when long haired hermits sought solitude in the desert.[lxxiv] Fig. 8. Lucas Cranach the Elder, The Ecstasy of St. Mary of Egypt, 1506 Woodcut, 24.4 × 14.2 cm, The Met, New York, Wild Man in Reformation Propaganda The image of the wild man was also co-opted into the Protestant Reformation in Germany and has been used by both Protestants and Catholics in contradictory ways. The engraving of The Pope as a Wild Man was created by Melchior Lorck (c.1526/7-1583) in 1545. This wild man with characteristic thick body hair with bare knees is a hybrid with long rat-like tail. Perched on top of his head is the three-tiered crown of the pope, but the last tier is a tower of excrement. Beneath his crown are ass ears, which represent folly and dishonesty. The ass’s ears allude to the myth of Apollo who made Midas grow the ears of a donkey to tag him for his dishonesty.[lxxv] On his back appears to be a bat with stretched out wings, which is a symbol for the Devil.[lxxvi] The wild man carries his characteristic wooden club, but this one has three cross branches at the end to represent the papal cross. He holds onto the papal key that is shattered at the end, which is a sign that the temporal powers of the papacy have been broken.[lxxvii] From his mouth pours a stream of toads and reptiles. This appears to reference the beast, the dragon, and the false prophet who release four foul spirits. A version of this image was discovered cast on a canon of Protestant troops captured during the Schmalkaldic War.[lxxviii] Melchior Lorck, The Pope as Wild Man, c. 1545, Etching, 22.9 × 19.4 cm, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett Conclusion In Renaissance Germany, complexity existed in people’s relationship with the wilderness. It both conjured up images of the Garden of Eden before ‘The Fall’ as well as the dangers that may lurk beyond. The wild man and woman were just as complex and represented sinfulness, but also redemption and innocence. As Merry Wiesner-Hanks concludes ‘beast, saint, or hero? the wild man was all three’.[lxxix] A closer look at images of the wild man reveals their complexity. There was not a simple evolution between a demonised creature associated with cannibalism and rape to the holy saint. In the age of the apocalypse, the wild man and woman provide a reminder of Original Sin and the need for repentance at a time of social reform. In this way, the hairy woodland creature is not entirely absolved. Further Reading: Abulafia, David, The Discovery of Mankind: Atlantic Encounters in the Age of Columbus, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008 Bartra, Roger, Wild Men in the Looking Glass: The Mythic Origins of European Otherness, trans. Carl T. Berrisford, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1994. Bernheimer, Richard, Wild Men in the Middle Ages: A Study in Art, Sentiment, and Demonology, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1952. Colin, Susi, ‘The Wild Man and the Indian in Early 16th Century Book Illustration,’ in Christian F. Feest (eds.), Indians and Europe: An Interdisciplinary Collection, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999, pp. 5-37. Husband, Timothy, The Wild Man: Medieval Myth and Symbolism, exh. cat., New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1980. Kaufmann, Lynn Frier, The Nobel Savage: Satyrs and Satyr Families in Renaissance Art, Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press, 1984. Moseley-Christian, Michelle, ‘From Page to Print: The Transformation of the “Wild Woman” in Early Modern Northern Engravings’, Word & Image: A Journal of Verbal/Visual Enquiry, vol. 27, no. 4, 2012, pp.429-442. Schama, Simon, Landscape and Memory, London: HarperCollins, 1995. Wiesner-Hanks, Merry, The Marvelous Hairy Girls: The Gonzales Sisters and their Worlds, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009. [ii] Simon Schama, Landscape and Memory, London: HarperCollins, 1995, p. 97; Timothy Husband, The Wild Man: Medieval Myth and Symbolism, exh. cat., New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1980, p. 12. [i] Bartra, Roger, Wild Men in the Looking Glass: The Mythic Origins of European Otherness, trans. Carl T. Berrisford, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1994, p. 79. [iii] Schama, 1995, pp. 95-6. [iv] Bartra, 1994, p. 9. [v] Richard Bernheimer, Wild Men in the Middle Ages: A Study in Art, Sentiment, and Demonology, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1952, p. 11. [vi] Joyce E. Salisbury, The Beast Within: Animals in the Middle Ages, New York: Routledge, 1994, p. 151; David Abulafia, The Discovery of Mankind: Atlantic Encounters in the Age of Columbus, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008, pp.16-7. [vii] Susi Colin, ‘The Wild Man and the Indian in Early 16th Century Book Illustration,’ in Christian F. Feest (eds.), Indians and Europe: An Interdisciplinary Collection, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999, p.8. [viii] Abulafia, 2008, pp.16-7. [ix] Colin, 1999, p.6 [x] Bernheimer, 1952, pp.165, 59. [xi] Colin, 1999, p.8. [xii] Husband, 1980, p. 11. [xiii] Walter L. Strauss (ed.), The Complete Engravings, Etchings and Drypoints of Albrecht Dürer, Courier Dover, 2013, p. 178. [xiv] Bernheimer, 1952, p. 135. [xv] Anne Clark, Beasts and Bawdy, London: Dent, 1975, p. 46 [xvi] Lynn Frier Kaufmann, The Nobel Savage: Satyrs and Satyr Families in Renaissance Art, Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press, 1984, p. 34. [xvii] Salisbury, 1994, p. 152. [xviii] Classen, Albrecht (ed.), Meeting the Foreign in the Middle Ages, New York: Routledge, 2002, p. xx. [xix] Colin, 1999, p. 9. [xx] Danielle Régnier-Bohler, ‘Imagining the Self’, in Georges Duby (ed.), A History of Private Life: vol. II Revelations of the Medieval World, trans. Arthur Goldhammer, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988, p. 368. [xxi] Régnier-Bohler, 1988, p. 369. [xxii] Colin, 1999, p. 9. [xxiii] Colin, 1999, p.6. [xxiv] Husband, 1980, p. 62; Merry Wiesner-Hanks, The Marvelous Hairy Girls: The Gonzales Sisters and their Worlds, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009, p. 42. [xxv] Husband, 1980, p. 64; Bartra, 1994, p. 101; Bernheimer, 1970, p. 37. [xxvi] Gilmore-House in Husband, 1980, p. 139. [xxvii] Kaufmann, 1984, pp.32-4. [xxviii] Michelle Moseley-Christian, ‘From Page to Print: The Transformation of the “Wild Woman” in Early Modern Northern Engravings’, Word & Image: A Journal of Verbal/Visual Enquiry, vol. 27, no. 4, 2012, p. 431; Tacitus, Cornelius, Agricola and Germany, trans. Anthony Birley, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 46. [xxix] Schama, 1995, p. 96. [xxx] Caspar Hirschi, The Origins of Nationalism: An Alternative History from Ancient Rome to Early Modern Germany, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, p. 169. [xxxi] Colin, 1999, p. 23-4. [xxxii] Lewis W. Spitz, Conrad Celtis: The German Arch-Humanist, Cambridge: Harvard Universtiy Press, 1957, p. 100-101. [xxxiii] Anne Clark, 1975, p. 46. [xxxiv] Gilmore-House in Husband, 1980, p. 168. [xxxv] Gilmore-House in Husband, 1980, p. 167. [xxxvi] Gilmore-House in Husband, 1980, p. 168. [xxxvii] Wiesner-Hanks, 2009, p. 35. [xxxviii] Bernheimer, 1952, p. 180. [xxxix] Husband, 1980, p. 4. [xl] Wiesner-Hanks, 2009, p. 44. [xli] Husband, 1980, p. 187. [xlii] Moseley-Christian, 2012, p. 438. [xliii] George Ferguson, Signs & Symbols in Christian Art, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959, p. 22. [xliv] Christa Grössinger, Picturing Women in Late Medieval and Renaissance Art, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997, p. 82. [xlv] Husband, 1980, p. 15. [xlvi] Husband, 1980, p. 17. [xlvii] Kaufmann, 1984, pp. 36-7. [xlviii] Schama, 1995, pp. 97-8. [xlix] Colin, 1999, pp. 23-4. [l] Husband, 1980, p. 133. The full translation is found in Appendix B of Husband, 1980, pp. 202-4. [li] Husband, 1980, p. 97. [lii] Husband, 1980, p. 95. [liii] Husband, 1980, p. 102. [liv] Husband, 1980, p. 105. [lv] Bartra, 1994, pp. 83-4. [lvi] Roberta Milliken, Ambiguous Locks: An Iconology of Hair in Medieval Art and Literature, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland and Company, 2012, p. 189. [lvii] Wiesner-Hanks, 2009, p. 41. [lviii] Joana Antunes, ‘The Late-Medieval Mary Magdalene: Sacredness, Otherness, and Wildness’, in Peter Loewen and Robin Waugh (eds.), Mary Magdalene in Medieval Culture: Conflicted Roles, New York: Routledge, 2014, p. 117; Wiesner-Hanks, 2009, p. 38; Husband, 1980, p. 100. [lix] Husband, 1980, p. 100. [lx] Antunes, 2014, p. 118. [lxi] Milliken, 2012, p. 189. [lxii] Wiesner-Hanks, 2009, p. 38; Husband, 1980, p. 100; Milliken, 2012, p. 189. [lxiii] Michelle Erhardt and Amy Morris, ‘Introduction’ in Michelle Erhardt and Amy Morris (eds.), Mary Magdalene: Iconographic Studies from the Middle Ages to the Baroque, Leiden: Brill, 2012, p. 9; Else E. Friesen, ‘Saints as Helpers in Dying: The Hairy Holy Women Mary Magdalene, Mary of Egypt, and Wilgefortist in the Iconography of the Late Middle Ages,’ in E.E. DuBruck and B.I. Gusick, Death and Dying in the Middle Ages, New York: Peter Lang, 1999, pp. 240, 242; Milliken, 2012, p. 204. [lxiv] Erhardt and Morris, 2012, p. 9; Friesen, 1999, pp. 240, 242. [lxv] Bartra, 1994, pp.47-8. [lxvi] Erhardt and Morris, 2012, p. 9; Friesen, 1999, pp. 240, 242. [lxvii] Milliken, 2012, p. 206. [lxviii] Friesen, 1999, p. 242 [lxix] Husband, 1980, p. 100. [lxx] Jacobus de Voragine, The Golden Legend: Readings on the Saints (c.1260), ed. Eamon Duffy, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012, p. 381. [lxxi] Virginia Burrus, The Sex Lives of Saints: An Erotics of Ancient Hagiography, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011, p. 149. [lxxii] Voragine, 2012, p. 228; Milliken, 2012, p. 205. [lxxiii] Husband, 1980, p. 102. [lxxiv] Bartra, 1994, pp. 74-5. [lxxv] Hélène A. Guerber, The Myths of Greece and Rome, New York: Cosimo, Inc., 2007, p. 57. [lxxvi] Russell, 1986, p. 232. [lxxvii] Robert W. Scribner, For the Sake of Simple Folk: Popular Propaganda for the German Reformation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981, pp. 135, 80 [lxxviii] Scribner, 1981, pp. 163, 164. [lxxix] Wiesner-Hanks, 2009, p. 35. 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